Chile

$name - General

Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation. In January 2014, Chile assumed a two-year nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council.


Government

Country name:
 

conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Government type:

republic
Capital:
name: Santiago; note - Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature
geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

15 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aysen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence:

18 September 1810 (from Spain)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution:

many previous; latest adopted 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)

Legal system:

civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 17 November 2013 with a runoff election held on 15 December 2013 (next to be held on 19 November 2017)
election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 62.2%; Evelyn Rose MATTHEI Fornet 37.8%
 

Legislative branch:

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 4-year terms); note - in both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the party winning at least two-thirds of the votes is entitled to 2 seats in the constituency; if it obtains less than two-thirds of the votes, it is entitled to one seat with the remaining seat awarded to the next highest winning party
elections: Senate - last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority Coalition (formerly known as Concertacion) 19 (PDC 6, PS 6, PPD 6, MAS 1), Coalition for Change (formerly known as the Alianza coalition) 15 (RN 6, UDI 8, Amplitude Party 1), independents 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority 67 (PDC 21, PS 16, PPD 15, PC 6, PRSD 6, Citizen Left 1, independents 2), Coalition for Change 49 (UDI 29, RN 15, independents 4), Liberal Party 1, independents 4
note: In January 2015, the Chilean Congress voted to end the binomial system that was put in place under Gen. Augusto PINOCHET; the Congress also voted to expand its size and establish rules to ensure that there is equitable gender representation; the new electoral system will be put in place in 2017

Judicial branch:
 

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members); Electoral Court (consists of 5 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 2 by the National Security Council, and 1 by the Senate; members serve 8-year terms with partial membership replacement every 4 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Electoral Court member appointments - 4 by the Supreme Court and 1 a former president or vice-president of the Senate or Chamber of Deputies selected by the Supreme Court; member term NA
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs, taxes, and electoral affairs

Political parties and leaders:

Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain]
Citizen Left or IC
Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Patricio MELERO]
Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ignacio WALKER Prieto], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia], and Socialist Party or PS [Osvaldo ANDRADE Lara])
Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle]
Ecological Green Party [Cristian VILLAROEL Novoa]
Equality Party [Lautaro GUANCA Vallejos]
Humanist Party or PH [Danilo MONTEVERDE Reyes]
Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Ernesto SILVA]
Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Carlos OLIVARES Zepeda]
Liberal Party [Vlado MIROSEVIC]
National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN]
Progressive Party or PRO [Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI Gumucio]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei
United Labor Central or CUT (includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations)
other: university student federations at all major universities
 

International organization participation:
 

APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Gabriel VALDES Soublette (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael HAMMER (since April 2014)
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
mailing address: APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 2330-3000
FAX: [56] (2) 2330-3710, 2330-3160

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence
note: design was influenced by the US flag

National symbol(s):

huemul (mountain deer), Andean condor; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem:

name: 'Himno Nacional de Chile' (National Anthem of Chile)
lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle
note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET's military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990

Geography

Location:

Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates:

30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references:

South America

Area:

total: 756,102 sq km
land: 743,812 sq km
water: 12,290 sq km
note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
country comparison to the world: 38

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:

total: 7,801 km
border countries (3): Argentina 6,691 km, Bolivia 942 km, Peru 168 km

Coastline:

6,435 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200/350 nm

Climate:

temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

Terrain:

low coastal mountains, fertile central valley, rugged Andes in east

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources:

copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use:

agricultural land: 21.1%
arable land 1.7%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
forest: 21.9%
other: 57% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
11,990 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

922 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 26.67 cu km/yr (4%/10%/86%)
per capita: 1,603 cu m/yr (2007)

Natural hazards:

severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (elev. 5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica

Environment - current issues:

widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 38 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country; the crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m)

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:

noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups:

white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)

 

Languages:
 

Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)
 

Religions:
 

Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)
 

Demographic profile:
 

Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.
Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.
 

Population:
 

17,508,260 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 

Age structure:
 

0-14 years: 20.46% (male 1,827,374/female 1,754,283)
15-24 years: 15.88% (male 1,418,938/female 1,361,307)
25-54 years: 43.21% (male 3,771,003/female 3,793,655)
55-64 years: 10.24% (male 842,346/female 950,574)
65 years and over: 10.22% (male 747,930/female 1,040,850) (2015 est.)
 

population pyramid: 
 

Dependency ratios:
 

total dependency ratio: 45.1%
youth dependency ratio: 30.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 14.9%
potential support ratio: 6.7% (2014 est.)
 

Median age:
 

total: 33.3 years
male: 32.2 years
female: 34.6 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:
 

0.82% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 

Birth rate:
 

13.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
 

Death rate:
 

6 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
 

Net migration rate:
 

0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
 

Urbanization:
 

urban population: 89.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.09% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:
 

SANTIAGO (capital) 6.507 million; Valparaiso 907,000; Concepcion 816,000 (2015)
 

Sex ratio:
 

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
 

Infant mortality rate:
 

total: 6.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Life expectancy at birth:
 

total population: 78.61 years
male: 75.58 years
female: 81.76 years (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 

Total fertility rate:
 

1.82 children born/woman (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
 

64.2%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2006)
 

Health expenditures:
 

7.7% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Physicians density:
 

1.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
 

Hospital bed density:
 

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
 

Drinking water source:
 

improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 91.3% of population
total: 98.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 8.7% of population
total: 1.2% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:
 

improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 89.3% of population
total: 98.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 10.7% of population
total: 1.1% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 

0.33% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 

37,900 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 

700 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
 

28.5% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 30
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
 

0.5% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 137
 

Education expenditures:
 

4.6% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 90
 

Literacy:
 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.5%
male: 97.6%
female: 97.4% (2015 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 

total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2012)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
 

total number: 82,882
percentage: 3% (2003 est.)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
 

total: 16.3%
male: 14.3%
female: 19.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Economy

Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some three-quarters of total exports. Copper alone provides 19% of government revenue. From 2003 through 2013, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite the slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Growth slowed to 4.2% in 2014. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile has 22 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. Chile has joined the United States and 10 other countries in negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement. The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of 31 December 2012, those sovereign wealth funds - kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves - amounted to more than $20.9 billion. Chile used these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn. In May 2010 Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. In 2014, President Michelle BACHELET introduced tax reforms aimed at delivering her campaign promise to fight inequality and to provide access to education and health care. The reforms are expected to generate additional tax revenues equal to 3% of Chile’s GDP, mostly by increasing corporate tax rates to OECD averages. GDP (purchasing power parity): $409.3 billion (2014 est.) $401.9 billion (2013 est.) $385.3 billion (2012 est.) note: data are in 2014 US dollars country comparison to the world: 44 GDP (official exchange rate): $258 billion (2014 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (2014 est.) 4.3% (2013 est.) 5.5% (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 151 GDP - per capita (PPP): $23,000 (2014 est.) $22,600 (2013 est.) $21,600 (2012 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars country comparison to the world: 76 Gross national saving: 20.3% of GDP (2014 est.) 20.7% of GDP (2013 est.) 21.8% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.4% government consumption: 13.1% investment in fixed capital: 22.1% investment in inventories: 0.2% exports of goods and services: 34.1% imports of goods and services: -35% (2014 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 3.5% industry: 35.5% services: 61.1% (2014 est.) Agriculture - products: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber Industries: copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 114 Labor force: 8.514 million (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 58 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13.2% industry: 23% services: 63.9% (2005) Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2014 est.) 6% (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 68 Population below poverty line: 15.1% (2009 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5% highest 10%: 42.8% (2009 est.) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 52.1 (2009) 57.1 (2000) country comparison to the world: 14 Budget: revenues: $50.67 billion expenditures: $56.32 billion (2014 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 19.2% of GDP (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 172 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.1% of GDP (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 87 Public debt: 16.5% of GDP (2014 est.) 12.8% of GDP (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 144 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (2014 est.) 1.9% (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 162 Central bank discount rate: 3.12% (31 December 2010) 0.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 105 Commercial bank prime lending rate: 8.1% (31 December 2014 est.) 9.26% (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 Stock of narrow money: $40.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $42.22 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 Stock of broad money: $154.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $158 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 Stock of domestic credit: $201.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $206.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 Market value of publicly traded shares: $313.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $270.3 billion (31 December 2011) $341.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 Current account balance: -$2.993 billion (2014 est.) -$9.485 billion (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 161 Exports: $76.98 billion (2014 est.) $76.68 billion (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 Exports - commodities: copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine Exports - partners: China 24.9%, US 12.8%, Japan 9.9%, Brazil 5.8%, South Korea 5.5% (2013) Imports: $70.67 billion (2014 est.) $74.57 billion (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas Imports - partners: US 20.3%, China 19.7%, Brazil 6.5%, Argentina 5%, Germany 4% (2013) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $41.99 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $41.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 Debt - external: $140 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $130.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $204 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $185 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $87.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $76.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar - 568 (2014 est.) 495.31 (2013 est.) 486.49 (2012 est.) 483.67 (2011 est.) 510.25 (2010 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
 

total subscriptions: 3.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:
 

total: 23.7 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Telephone system:
 

general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
 

Broadcast media:
 

national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self-financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007)
 

Radio broadcast stations:
 

AM 180, FM 64, shortwave 17 (1998)
 

Television broadcast stations:
 

63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)
 

Internet country code:
 

.cl
 

Internet users:

total: 11.4 million

percent of population: 65.8% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Transportation

Electricity - production:
 

61.85 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 

Electricity - consumption:
 

57.89 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 

Electricity - exports:
 

0 kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 

Electricity - imports:
 

700 million kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
 

17.95 million kW (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
 

60.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
 

0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
 

33.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
 

6.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 

Crude oil - production:
 

10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 

Crude oil - exports:
 

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
 

Crude oil - imports:
 

163,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:
 

150 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 

Refined petroleum products - production:
 

198,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
 

341,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:
 

13,040 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:
 

138,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

Natural gas - production:
 

947 million cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
 

Natural gas - consumption:
 

4.705 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Natural gas - exports:
 

0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Natural gas - imports:
 

3.779 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:
 

97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
 

81.51 million Mt (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

 

Energy

Electricity - production:
 

61.85 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 

Electricity - consumption:
 

57.89 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 

Electricity - exports:
 

0 kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 

Electricity - imports:
 

700 million kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
 

17.95 million kW (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
 

60.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
 

0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
 

33.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
 

6.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 

Crude oil - production:
 

10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 

Crude oil - exports:
 

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
 

Crude oil - imports:
 

163,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:
 

150 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 

Refined petroleum products - production:
 

198,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
 

341,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:
 

13,040 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:
 

138,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

Natural gas - production:
 

947 million cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
 

Natural gas - consumption:
 

4.705 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Natural gas - exports:
 

0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Natural gas - imports:
 

3.779 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:
 

97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
 

81.51 million Mt (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

 

 

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