Djibouti

$name - General

Background:
 
The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afar minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 with a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Somali Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multiparty presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH as president; he was reelected to a second term in 2005 and extended his tenure in office via a constitutional amendment, which allowed him to begin a third term in 2011. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and serves as an important shipping portal for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands and transshipments between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, and has strong ties with the United States. Djibouti hosts several thousand members of US armed services at US-run Camp Lemonnier.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti
local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: Djibouti
geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
 

Independence:

27 June 1977 (from France)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
 

Constitution:

approved by referendum 4 September 1992; amended 2006, 2008, 2010 (2010)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system based primarily on the French civil code (as it existed in 1997), Islamic religious law (in matters of family law and successions), and customary law
 

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers (responsible to the president)
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; president is eligible to hold office until age 75; election last held on 8 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a third term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 80.6%, Mohamed Warsama RAGUEH 19.4%
 

Legislative branch:

unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - constitutional amendments in 2010 provided for the establishment of a senate
elections: last held on 22 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats - UMP (coalition of parties associated with President Ismail Omar GUELLEH) 49, USN 16
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA magistrates); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates appointed by the president with the advice of the Superior Council of the Magistracy; magistrates appointed for life with retirement at age 65; Constitutional magistrates - 2 appointed by the president, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 2 by High Council of the Judiciary; magistrates appointed for 8-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Appeal; 5 Courts of First Instance; customary courts
 

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]
Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]
Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]
Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]
Movement for Development and Liberty or MODEL [Sheikh Guirreh MEIDAL]
People's Rally for Progress or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party)
Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]
Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed YOUSSOUF]
Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD)
Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Ismail GUEDI Hared]
Union for National Salvation or USN (an umbrella coalition comprising PRD, PDD, MODEL, ARD, and UDJ) [Ahmed Youssouf HOUMER]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

NA
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE Oudine (since 22 March 1988)
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since 29 August 2011)
embassy: Lot 350-B, Haramouss, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 21 45 30 00
FAX: [253] 21 45 30 20
 

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center; blue stands for sea and sky and the Issa Somali people; green symbolizes earth and the Afar people; white represents peace; the red star recalls the struggle for independence and stands for unity
 

National anthem:

name: 'Jabuuti' (Djibouti)


lyrics/music: Aden ELMI/Abdi ROBLEH
note: adopted 1977

Geography

Location:
 
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
 

Geographic coordinates:

11 30 N, 43 00 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 23,200 sq km
country comparison to the world: 151
land: 23,180 sq km
water: 20 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

Area comparison map:  
 

Land boundaries:

total: 528 km
border countries: Eritrea 125 km, Ethiopia 342 km, Somalia 61 km
 

Coastline:

314 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 

Climate:

desert; torrid, dry
 

Terrain:

coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
 

Natural resources:

potential geothermal power, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
 

Land use:

arable land: 0.09%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.91% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

10.12 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

0.3 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.02 cu km/yr (84%/0%/16%)
per capita: 24.84 cu m/yr (2000)
 

Natural hazards:

earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
volcanism: experiences limited volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (elev. 298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active
 

Environment - current issues:

inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:

strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa and the saltiest lake in the world

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
 

Ethnic groups:

Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
 

Languages:

French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
 

Religions:

Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
 

Population:

810,179 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 32.9% (male 133,786/female 133,163)
15-24 years: 22% (male 83,871/female 94,316)
25-54 years: 36.9% (male 124,198/female 174,557)
55-64 years: 4.6% (male 17,694/female 19,931)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 12,875/female 15,788) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 60.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 54 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.5 %
potential support ratio: 15.3 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 22.8 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 24.1 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

2.23% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
 

Birth rate:

24.08 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Death rate:

7.84 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
 

Net migration rate:

6.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 77.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:

DJIBOUTI (capital) 496,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 56
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 50.2 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 39
male: 57.46 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 62.4 years
country comparison to the world: 187
male: 59.93 years
female: 64.94 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

2.47 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

17.8% (2006)
 

Health expenditures:

7.9% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 64
 

Physicians density:

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
 

Hospital bed density:

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 100% of population
rural: 65.5% of population
total: 92.1% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 0% of population
rural: 34.5% of population
total: 7.9% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 73.1% of population
rural: 21.6% of population
total: 61.4% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 26.9% of population
rural: 78.4% of population
total: 38.6% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

7,700 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

9.4% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 134
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

29.8% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 15
 

Education expenditures:

8.4% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 11
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 78%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2011)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 13,176
percentage: 8 % (2006 est.)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
Djibouti's economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location as a deepwater port on the Red Sea. Three-fourths of Djibouti's inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scant rainfall limits crop production to small quantities of fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Imports, exports, and re-exports - primarily of coffee from landlocked neighbor Ethiopia - represent 70% of port activity at Djibouti's container terminal. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of nearly 60% continues to be a major problem. While inflation is not a concern, due to the fixed tie of the Djiboutian franc to the US dollar, the artificially high value of the Djiboutian franc adversely affects Djibouti's balance of payments. Djibouti holds foreign reserves amounting to less than six months of import coverage. Djibouti has experienced relatively minimal impact from the global economic downturn, but its reliance on diesel-generated electricity and imported food leave average consumers vulnerable to global price shocks. President GUELLEH in 2013 told international investors that Djibouti’s development plan is to increase its prominence in financial and communication sectors.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$2.505 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
$2.386 billion (2012 est.)
$2.275 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.459 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
4.8% (2012 est.)
4.5% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,700 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
$2,700 (2012 est.)
$2,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

21.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
17% of GDP (2012 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 56.6%
government consumption: 23.1%
investment in fixed capital: 35.7%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 35.2%
imports of goods and services: -51.1%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 3%
industry: 17.3%
services: 79.7% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
 

Industries:

construction, agricultural processing
 

Industrial production growth rate:

8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 

Labor force:

294,600 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 165
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
 

Unemployment rate:

59% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
note: data are for urban areas only, unemployment is over 80% in rural areas
 

Population below poverty line:

18.8%
note: percent of population below $1.25 per day at purchasing power parity (2012 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.9% (2002)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

40.9 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 53
 

Budget:

revenues: $512.7 million
expenditures: $532.9 million (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

35.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-1.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
 

Public debt:

38.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
7.9% (2012 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

11% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
12% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$850.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
$758.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$1.256 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
$1.16 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$523.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
$483.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Current account balance:

-$219.5 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
-$216.2 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$90.8 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
$87.9 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
 

Exports - partners:

Somalia 80.1%, UAE 4.4%, Yemen 4.1% (2012)
 

Imports:

$593.3 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
$574.2 million (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
 

Imports - partners:

China 24.4%, Saudi Arabia 16.4%, India 10.6%, Indonesia 7.3% (2012)
 

Debt - external:

$821.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
$773.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$630.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
$510.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

Djiboutian francs (DJF) per US dollar -
177.7 (2013 est.)
177.72 (2012 est.)
177.72 (2010 est.)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
18,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 191
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

209,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 181
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country
domestic: Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city
international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network (2009)
 

Broadcast media:

state-owned Radiodiffusion-Television de Djibouti (RTD) operates the sole terrestrial TV station as well as the only 2 domestic radio networks; no private TV or radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.dj
 

Internet hosts:

215 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 200
 

Internet users:

25,900 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 185

Transportation

Airports:
 
13 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 152
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 
2 (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)
country comparison to the world: 126
narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia but is largely inoperable (2008)
 

Roadways:

total: 3,065 km
country comparison to the world: 165
paved: 1,226 km
unpaved: 1,839 km (2000)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Djibouti
 

Transportation - note:

while attacks decreased significantly in 2012, the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden remain a high risk for piracy; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators, including the use of on-board armed security teams, contributed to the drop in incidents

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
325 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
 

Electricity - consumption:

302.3 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
 

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

130,000 kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
 

Crude oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
 

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

12,460 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

19 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

8,089 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
 

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

1.15 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 43,542,488.00
2Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes12 R 24,843,619.00
3Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 14,177,076.00
4Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries33 R 8,172,888.00
5Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc27 R 7,669,372.00
6Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc32 R 1,606,812.00
7Miscellaneous edible preparations21 R 661,558.00
8Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board48 R 603,215.00
9Rubber and articles thereof40 R 485,364.00
10Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes28 R 437,243.00
11Miscellaneous chemical products38 R 324,415.00
12Wadding, felt, nonwovens, yarns, twine, cordage, etc56 R 322,637.00
13Articles of iron or steel73 R 245,865.00
14Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes34 R 188,747.00
15Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 160,993.00
16Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 132,702.00
17Vegetable, fruit, nut, etc food preparations20 R 90,774.00
18Pharmaceutical products30 R 81,093.00
19Albuminoids, modified starches, glues, enzymes35 R 54,000.00
20Cereal, flour, starch, milk preparations and products19 R 48,348.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: Yes

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee: Yes  

Visa Issuing Authority: French Consulate General (Johannesburg) Tel 011-7785600 French Consulate General (Cape Town) Tel 021-4231575

Compulsory Vaccination Requirements: 

Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommend Vaccination Requirements: 

Hepatitus A & Tetanus, Typhoid & Polio

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