Kenya

$name - General

Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich Arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over the constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement, which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. UN-sponsored talks in late February produced a powersharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. In August 2010, Kenya adopted a new constitution that eliminates the role of prime minister after the next presidential elections in 2012.Although the regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through a drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. In the key December 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. After some early progress in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support, the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, the World Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending, despite little action on the government's part to deal with corruption. Post-election violence in early 2008, coupled with the effects of the global financial crisis on remittance and exports, reduced estimated GDP growth to 2% or lower in 2008, but the economy rebounded in 2009-10.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
 

Independence:

12 December 1963 (from the UK)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 12 December (1963); Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963); Mashujaa Day, 20 October (2010)
 

Constitution:

previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2013)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
 

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - according to the 2008 power sharing agreement the position of prime minister was created though not well defined; consistent with the new constitution, the position was abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and deputy president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving a simple majority of votes, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017 or 2018); note - the new constitution had set elections for August 2011 but elections were delayed to 2013
election results: President Uhuru KENYATTA elected in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA 50.1%, Raila ODINGA 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI 4.0%, other 2.2%
 

Legislative branch:

bicameral parliament consists of a Senate (67 seats of which 47 are elected and 20 are appointed) and a National Assembly (349 seats of which 290 are elected and 59 are appointed); members to serve five-year terms
elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017 or 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Jubilee coalition TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1; CORD coalition ODM 17, Ford-K 5, WDM 5, FPK 1; Amani coalition KANU 3, UDF 3; unaffiliated APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 96, TNA 89, URP 75, WDM-K 26, UDF 12, FORD-K 10, KANU 6, NFK 6, APK 5, FORD-P 4, independents 4, other 16
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and five judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves nonrenewable 10-year terms or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; courts martial; magistrates' courts; religious courts
 

Political parties and leaders:

Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGO]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
The National Party Alliance or TNA [Uhuru KENYATTA]
National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-Kenya [Martha KARUA]
Orange Democratic Movement of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
United Democratic Forum Party or UDF [Musalia MUDAVADI]
United Republican Party or URP [William RUTO]
Wiper Democratic Movement or WDM (formerly Orange Democratic Movement or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]
Kenya Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic and other Christian churches
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
other: labor unions, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Kenya Private Sector Alliance
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jean KAMAU
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P. O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
 

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
 

National symbol(s):

lion
 

National anthem:

name: 'Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu' (Oh God of All Creation)


lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; the anthem is based on a traditional Kenyan folk song

Geography

Location:
 
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
 

Geographic coordinates:

1 00 N, 38 00 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 580,367 sq km
country comparison to the world: 49
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

Area comparison map:  
 

Land boundaries:

total: 3,477 km
border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, South Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
 

Coastline:

536 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 

Climate:

varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
 

Terrain:

low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
 

Natural resources:

limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
 

Land use:

arable land: 9.48%
permanent crops: 1.12%
other: 89.4% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

1,032 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

30.7 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 2.74 cu km/yr (17%/4%/79%)
per capita: 72.96 cu m/yr (2003)
 

Natural hazards:

recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
 

Environment - current issues:

water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:

the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
 

Ethnic groups:

Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
 

Languages:

English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
 

Religions:

Christian 82.5% (Protestant 47.4%, Catholic 23.3%, other 11.8%), Muslim 11.1%, Traditionalists 1.6%, other 1.7%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 census)
 

Population:

45,010,056
country comparison to the world: 31
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 42.1% (male 9,494,983/female 9,435,795)
15-24 years: 18.7% (male 4,197,382/female 4,202,399)
25-54 years: 32.8% (male 7,458,665/female 7,302,534)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 751,296/female 910,523)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 548,431/female 708,048) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 81 %
youth dependency ratio: 76.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
potential support ratio: 20.4 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 19.1 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.2 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

2.11% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 

Birth rate:

28.27 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 

Death rate:

7 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
 

Net migration rate:

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 24% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

NAIROBI (capital) 3.363 million; Mombassa 972,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Mother's mean age at first birth:

19.8
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008-09 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

360 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 30
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 40.71 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 52
male: 45.33 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 63.52 years
country comparison to the world: 180
male: 62.06 years
female: 65.01 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

3.54 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

45.5% (2008/09)
 

Health expenditures:

4.5% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 151
 

Physicians density:

0.18 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
 

Hospital bed density:

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 82.3% of population
rural: 55.1% of population
total: 61.7% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 17.7% of population
rural: 44.9% of population
total: 38.3% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 29.1% of population
total: 29.6% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 70.9% of population
total: 70.4% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

6.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1.646 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

57,500 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

4.2% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 171
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

16.4% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
 

Education expenditures:

6.7% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 90.6%
female: 84.2% (2010 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 2,146,058
percentage: 26 % (2000 est.)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
Kenya hKenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. Low infrastructure investment threatens Kenya's long-term position as the largest East African economy, although the Kenyatta administration has prioritized infrastructure development. International financial lenders and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development. Unemployment is high at around 40%. The country has chronic budget deficits. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Recent terrorism in Kenya and the surrounding region threatens Kenya's important tourism industry. Kenya, in conjunction with neighboring Ethiopia and South Sudan, intends to begin construction on a transport corridor and oil pipeline into the port of Lamu in 2014.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$79.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
$76.03 billion (2012 est.)
$72.71 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$45.31 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

5.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
4.6% (2012 est.)
4.4% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,800 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
$1,700 (2013 est.)
$1,700 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

10.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
9.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
10.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 79.2%
government consumption: 18.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 28.5%
imports of goods and services: -47%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 29.3%
industry: 17.4%
services: 53.3% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
 

Industries:

small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
 

Industrial production growth rate:

5.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 

Labor force:

19.67 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 75%
industry and services: 25% (2007 est.)
 

Unemployment rate:

40% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
40% (2001 est.)
 

Population below poverty line:

43.4% (2012 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

42.5 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
44.9 (1997)
 

Budget:

revenues: $7.866 billion
expenditures: $9.742 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

17.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-4.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 

Public debt:

53.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
52.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
 

Fiscal year:

1 July - 30 June
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

5.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
9.4% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

7% (31 December 2010 est.)
NA% (31 December 2009 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

17.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
NA% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$9.198 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
$8.264 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$19.37 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$17.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$23.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$20.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA (31 December 2011)
$14.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Current account balance:

-$4.495 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
-$4.31 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$6.58 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
$6.228 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
 

Exports - partners:

Uganda 10.3%, Tanzania 10%, Netherlands 7.7%, UK 7.2%, US 6.3%, Egypt 4.8%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.4% (2012)
 

Imports:

$15.86 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
$15.1 billion (2011 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
 

Imports - partners:

India 20.9%, China 15.4%, UAE 9.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.9% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$5.541 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
$5.712 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$11.96 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
$11.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$3.273 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
$2.877 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$335.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
$315.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
86.73 (2013 est.)
84.53 (2012 est.)
79.233 (2010 est.)
77.352 (2009)
68.358 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
251,600 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 124
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

30.732 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 33
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 65 per 100 persons in 2011
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster provide service nation-wide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; a large number of private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)
 

Internet country code:

.ke
 

Internet hosts:

71,018 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 88
 

Internet users:

3.996 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 59

Transportation

Airports:
 
197 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 16
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 
60 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 2,066 km
country comparison to the world: 71
narrow gauge: 2,066 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
 

Roadways:

total: 160,878 km
country comparison to the world: 30
paved: 11,189 km
unpaved: 149,689 km
note: includes 98.941 km of urban and other roads (2013)
 

Waterways:

none specifically, the only significant inland waterway in the country is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
 

Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 124
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
7.33 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
 

Electricity - consumption:

6.15 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 

Electricity - exports:

31 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
 

Electricity - imports:

31 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

1.698 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

41.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

44.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

13.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Crude oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
 

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 

Crude oil - imports:

31,040 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

32,240 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

79,410 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

1,266 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

52,160 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

12.62 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 479,059,975.00
2Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 148,903,518.00
3Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 122,076,448.00
4Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board48 R 79,177,408.00
5Sugars and sugar confectionery17 R 75,644,590.00
6Plastics and articles thereof39 R 64,090,003.00
7Aluminium and articles thereof76 R 59,315,812.00
8Miscellaneous chemical products38 R 51,581,832.00
9Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 40,974,677.00
10Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal44 R 20,971,968.00
11Rubber and articles thereof40 R 20,603,298.00
12Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes28 R 19,444,480.00
13Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries33 R 17,849,096.00
14Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc32 R 15,537,661.00
15Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes34 R 13,517,603.00
16Articles of iron or steel73 R 13,176,238.00
17Iron and steel72 R 12,056,689.00
18Pharmaceutical products30 R 11,622,028.00
19Cereals10 R 11,573,266.00
20Organic chemicals29 R 9,731,482.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required:  No 

Period/Purpose: Visa exempted for tourism or business purposes for a stay of up to 30 days.

Visa Fee: Yes

Visa Issuing Authority:

High Commission of the Republic of Kenya
Physical address:  302 Brooks Street, Menlo Park, Pretoria, 0081
Postal address:  P O Box 35954, Menlo Park, Pretoria, 0102
Tel:  (012) 362-2249/50/51 Fax:  (012) 362-2252
Website:  www.kenya.org.za 

Compulsory Vaccination Requirement(s)Yellow Fever if coming from / stopping over in an endemic area

Recommended Vaccination Requirement(s): Hepatitis A, Tetanus, Typhoid, Cholera & Meningitis.  Precautions:  Malaria Prophylaxis

Business Etiquette

Language: KiSwahili and English
Currency: Shilling (KES)
International Dialing Code: +254
Time Difference: +3 hours GMT
Greeting: Hello – ‘Jambo’ (pronounced ‘Jam-bo’)
Goodbye – ‘Kwaheri’ (pronounced ‘Kwa heri’)

Dealing with a Business Counterpart:
• A handshake is the most common form of business greeting;
• When being introduced to an individual initially, the handshake is short, while handshakes among people with established personal relationships are longer;
• Men should wait for a woman to extend their hand before and then proffering one’s own hand to shake hands;
• Business relationships are important in Kenya;
• Meetings seldom have scheduled end times because it is more important to finish a meeting in a manner satisfactory to all concerned;
• Business cards may be exchanged at the time of introduction and occurs without formal ritual. It is, however, important to present and receive such cards by using both hands.

Downloads

Embassies and Diplomats

Read      Download    Embassy Information

Read      Download    Diplomats Information

Country Profile

Read Kenya Country Profile     Download Kenya Country Profile   Kenya Country Profile

Trade Agreements

Read African Free Trade Zone Agreement     Download African Free Trade Zone Agreement   African Free Trade Zone Agreement

Read AGOA Trade Agreement     Download AGOA Trade Agreement   AGOA Trade Agreement

Read SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994     Download SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994   SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994

Read South African Trade Agreements     Download South African Trade Agreements   South African Trade Agreements

Export Incentives

Read EMIA Individual Participation     Download EMIA Individual Participation   EMIA Individual Participation

Read SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters     Download SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters   SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters

Read SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme     Download SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme   SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme

Read CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme     Download CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme   CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme

Read Summary of Incentives     Download Summary of Incentives   Summary of Incentives






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