Lesotho

$name - General

Background:
 
Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. The Basuto National Party ruled the country during its first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990, but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995 and subsequently succeeded by his son, King LETSIE III, in 1996. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Batswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002, but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties disputed how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. In May 2012, competitive elections involving 18 parties saw Prime Minister Motsoahae Thomas THABANE form a coalition government - the first in the country's history - that ousted the 14-year incumbent, Pakalitha MOSISILI, who peacefully transferred power the following month.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
conventional short form: Lesotho
local long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
local short form: Lesotho
former: Basutoland
 

Government type:

parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 

Capital:

name: Maseru
geographic coordinates: 29 19 S, 27 29 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
 

Independence:

4 October 1966 (from the UK)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
 

Constitution:

previous 1959, 1967; latest adopted 2 April 1993 (effectively restoring the 1967 version); amended 2001 (2013)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system of English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile
head of government: Prime Minister Motsoahae Thomas THABANE (since 8 June 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: the leader of the majority party, or coalition of parties, in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarchy is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a 'living symbol of national unity' with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law, the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, determine next in line of succession or shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33 members - 22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the ruling party) and the Assembly (120 seats, 80 by popular vote and 40 by proportional vote; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DC 48, ABC 30, LCD 26, BNP 5, PFD 3, NIP 2, other 6
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, such number of justices of appeal as set by Parliament, and the Chief Justice and the puisne judges of the High Court ex officio); High Court (consists of the chief justice and such number of puisne judges as set by Parliament); note - both the Court of Appeal and the High Court have jurisdiction in constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal president and High Court chief justice appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; puisne judges appointed by the monarch on advice of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body of judicial officers and officials designated by the monarch; judges of both courts can serve until age 75
subordinate courts: Magistrate Courts; customary or traditional courts; Courts Martial
 

Political parties and leaders:

Pakalitha Mosisili All Basotho Convention or ABC [Motsoahae Thomas THABANE]
Basotho Batho Democratic Party or BBDP [Geremane RAMATHEBANE]
Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Thulo MAHLAKENG]
Basotho Democratic National Party or BDNP [Thabang NYEOE]
Basotho National Party or BNP [Thesele MASERIBANE]
Democratic Congress or DC [Pakalitha MOSISILI]
Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Mothetjoa METSING]
Lesotho Peoples Congress or LPC [Kelebone MAOPE]
Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]
Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP [Vincent MALEBO]
National Independent Party or NIP [Kimetso MATHABA]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Media Institute of Southern Africa, Lesotho chapter [Tsebo MATŠASA] (pushes for media freedom)
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Eliachim Molapi SEBATANE (since 2 November 2011)
chancery: 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-5533
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6815
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Carl B. FOX
embassy: 254 Kingsway Road, Maseru West (Consular Section)
mailing address: P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho
telephone: [266] 22 312666
FAX: [266] 22 310116
 

Flag description:

three horizontal stripes of blue (top), white, and green in the proportions of 3:4:3; the colors represent rain, peace, and prosperity respectively; centered in the white stripe is a black Basotho hat representing the indigenous people; the flag was unfurled in October 2006 to celebrate 40 years of independence
National symbol(s):

Basotho hat
 

National anthem:

name: 'Lesotho fatse la bo ntat'a rona' (Lesotho, Land of Our Fathers)
lyrics/music: Francois COILLARD/Ferdinand-Samuel LAUR
note: adopted 1967; the anthem's music derives from an 1823 Swiss songbook

Geography

Location:
 
Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
 

Geographic coordinates:

29 30 S, 28 30 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 30,355 sq km
country comparison to the world: 142
land: 30,355 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Maryland
 

Land boundaries:

total: 909 km
border countries: South Africa 909 km
 

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)
 

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)
 

Climate:

temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
 

Terrain:

mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1,400 m
highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 m
 

Natural resources:

water, agricultural and grazing land, diamonds, sand, clay, building stone
 

Land use:

arable land: 10.14%
permanent crops: 0.13%
other: 89.72% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

26.37 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

3.02 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.04 cu km/yr (46%/46%/9%)
per capita: 21.79 cu m/yr (2000)
 

Natural hazards:

periodic droughts
 

Environment - current issues:

population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, and redirects water to South Africa
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:

landlocked, completely surrounded by South Africa; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 m above sea level

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
adjective: Basotho
 

Ethnic groups:

Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%,
 

Languages:

Sesotho (official) (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
 

Religions:

Christian 80%, indigenous beliefs 20%
 

Population:

1,942,008
country comparison to the world: 149
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 32.9% (male 321,017/female 318,265)
15-24 years: 19.9% (male 184,006/female 203,336)
25-54 years: 36.8% (male 349,365/female 364,970)
55-64 years: 4.9% (male 51,274/female 44,847)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 52,955/female 51,973) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 67.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 60.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7 %
potential support ratio: 14.3 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 23.6 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 23.6 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

0.34% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 

Birth rate:

25.92 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Death rate:

14.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 

Net migration rate:

-7.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 27.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.57% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

MASERU (capital) 239,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Mother's mean age at first birth:

21.2
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

620 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 50.48 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 37
male: 54.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 52.65 years
country comparison to the world: 211
male: 52.55 years
female: 52.75 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

2.78 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

47% (2009/10)
 

Health expenditures:

12.8% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 8
 

Physicians density:

0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
 

Hospital bed density:

1.3 beds/1,000 population (2006)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 93.2% of population
rural: 76.7% of population
total: 81.3% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 6.8% of population
rural: 23.3% of population
total: 18.7% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 37% of population
rural: 26.7% of population
total: 29.6% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 63% of population
rural: 73.3% of population
total: 70.4% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

23.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

358,700 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

15,500 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

14.6% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 120
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

13.5% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 56
 

Education expenditures:

13% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 1
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.6%
male: 83.3%
female: 95.6% (2010 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2012)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 103,020
percentage: 23 % (2000 est.)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 34.4%
country comparison to the world: 19
male: 29%
female: 41.9% (2008)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
Small, mountainous, and completely landlocked by South Africa, Lesotho is a least developed country in which about three-fourths of the people live in rural areas and engage in subsistence agriculture. Lesotho produces less than 20% of the nation's demand for food. Rain-fed agriculture is vulnerable to weather and climate variability; an estimated 725,500 people will require food assistance in 2012/13. The distribution of income in Lesotho remains inequitable. Lesotho relies on South Africa for much of its economic activity. Lesotho imports 90% of the goods it consumes from South Africa, including most agricultural inputs. Households depend heavily on remittances from family members working in South Africa, in mines, on farms and as domestic workers, though mining employment has declined substantially since the 1990s. Government revenue depends heavily on transfers from South Africa. Customs duties from the Southern Africa Customs Union accounted for 44% of government revenue in 2012. The South African Government also pays royalties for water transferred to South Africa from a dam and reservoir system in Lesotho. However, the government continues to strengthen its tax system to reduce dependency on customs duties and other transfers. Access to credit remains a problem for the private sector. The government maintains a large presence in the economy - government consumption accounted for 39% of GDP in 2013 and the government remains Lesotho's largest employer. Lesotho's largest private employer is the textile and garment industry - approximately 36,000 Basotho, mainly women, work in factories producing garments for export to South Africa and the US. Diamond mining in Lesotho has grown in recent years and may contribute 8.5% to GDP by 2015, according to current forecasts. Lesotho's $362.5 million Millennium Challenge Account Compact, which focused on strengthening the healthcare system, developing the private sector, and providing access to improved water supplies and sanitation facilities, will end in September 2013. Despite the 2008/09 global economic crisis, the economy has had strong, but declining growth since 2010.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$4.265 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
$4.096 billion (2012 est.)
$3.918 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$2.457 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

4.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
4.5% (2012 est.)
5.7% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,200 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
$2,200 (2012 est.)
$2,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

11.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
7.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
7.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 86%
government consumption: 39.4%
investment in fixed capital: 33.7%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 47.9%
imports of goods and services: -108.2%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 7.4%
industry: 34.5%
services: 58.2% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock
 

Industries:

food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts, construction, tourism
 

Industrial production growth rate:

4.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 

Labor force:

874,200 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 86%
industry and services: 14%
note: most of the resident population is engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners work in South Africa (2002 est.)
 

Unemployment rate:

25% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
45% (2002 est.)
 

Population below poverty line:

49% (1999)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 39.4% (2003)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

63.2 (1995)
country comparison to the world: 1
56 (1986-87)
 

Budget:

revenues: $1.462 billion
expenditures: $1.483 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

59.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-0.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Public debt:

NA
 

Fiscal year:

1 April - 31 March
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
6.1% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

9.36% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
10% (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

10% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
10.12% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$425.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
$408.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$903.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
$840.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$85,420 (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
$75,280 (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Current account balance:

-$518.4 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
-$587.4 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$941.2 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
$972.4 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

manufactures (clothing, footwear), wool and mohair, food and live animals, electricity, water, diamonds
 

Imports:

$2.148 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
$2.239 billion (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

food; building materials, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum products
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$857.9 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
$749.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$794 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
$779.8 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$635.7 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
$398 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

maloti (LSL) per US dollar -
9.575 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
7.32 (2010 est.)
8.47 (2009)
7.75 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
43,100 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 168
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

1.312 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 153
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: rudimentary system consisting of a modest number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a small radiotelephone communication system; mobile-cellular telephone system is expanding
domestic: privatized in 2001, Telecom Lesotho was tasked with providing an additional 50,000 fixed-line connections within five years, a target not met; mobile-cellular service dominates the market and is expanding with a subscribership roughly 65 per 100 persons in 2011; rural services are scant
international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

1 state-owned TV station and 2 state-owned radio stations; government controls most private broadcast media; satellite TV subscription service available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters obtainable (2008)
 

Internet country code:

.ls
 

Internet hosts:

11,030 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 131
 

Internet users:

76,800 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 168

Transportation

Airports:
 
24 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 132
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 
16 (2013)
 

Roadways:

total: 5,940 km
country comparison to the world: 150
paved: 1,069 km
unpaved: 4,871 km (2011)

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
200 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 

Electricity - consumption:

307 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 

Electricity - imports:

247 million kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

76,000 kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
 

Crude oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

1,777 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

3,711 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
 

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

445,600 Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Cereals10 R 336,512,142.00
2Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 138,792,733.00
3Sugars and sugar confectionery17 R 108,362,266.00
4Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes34 R 98,750,735.00
5Articles of apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet62 R 66,811,084.00
6Meat and edible meat offal02 R 57,204,135.00
7Plastics and articles thereof39 R 55,732,891.00
8Animal,vegetable fats and oils, cleavage products, etc15 R 46,556,019.00
9Footwear, gaiters and the like, parts thereof64 R 44,538,150.00
10Manmade filaments54 R 44,456,679.00
11Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 44,065,208.00
12Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal44 R 38,820,281.00
13Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board48 R 33,330,092.00
14Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet61 R 30,034,644.00
15Coffee, tea, mate and spices09 R 29,125,819.00
16Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc27 R 26,879,603.00
17Rubber and articles thereof40 R 26,694,511.00
18Articles of iron or steel73 R 24,942,760.00
19Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 21,287,159.00
20Cotton52 R 18,983,003.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required:  No 

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee: Yes

Visa Issuing Authority:

High Commission of Lesotho

391 Anderson Street

Tel 012-4607648 Fax 012-4607949

Consulate General (Johannesburg)

Tel 011-3393653 Fax 011-3391780

Consulate General (Durban)

Tel 031-3072323 031-3075852 

Compulsory Vaccination Requirement(s) Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommended Vaccination Requirement(s) : Hepatitus A & Tetanus

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