Libya

$name - General

Background:
 
The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government. Libya in 2012 formed a new parliament and elected a new prime minister.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya

Government type:

operates under a transitional government

Capital:

name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October
note: on 10 November 2012, Libya changed its standard time from UTC+2 to UTC+1

Administrative divisions:

22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati

Independence:

24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)

National holiday:

Liberation Day, 23 October (2011)

Constitution:

previous 1951, 1977; latest 2011 (interim); note - in mid-July 2013, Libya's legislative body agreed on steps for drafting a new constitution (2013)

Legal system:

Libya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:

18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President, General National Congress, Nuri Abu SAHMAYN
head of government: Abdullah al-THANI remains Prime Minister after the 4 May 2014 election is declared unconstitutional; Deputy Prime Ministers Awad Ibrik Ibrahim al-BARASI, Sadiq Abd al-Karim Abd al-Rahman KARIM, Abd-al-Salam Muhammad al-Mahdi al-QADI
cabinet: new cabinet approved by the General National Congress on 31 October 2012
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: prime minister and General National Congress president elected by the National Congress
election results: NA

Legislative branch:

unicameral General National Congress (200 seats; 120 individual seats elected from 69 constituencies and 80 party list seats elected from 20 constituencies; member term NA)
elections: first General National Congress election held on 7 July 2012 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote for party list seats only - NFA 48.7%, JCP 21.3%, other parties 30%; list and constituent seats - NFA 39, JCP 17, other 24, independents 120

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): NA; note - government in transition

Political parties and leaders:

Al-Watan (Homeland) Party
Justice and Construction Party or JCP [Muhammad SAWAN]
National Front (initially the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, formed in 1981 as a diaspora opposition group)
National Forces Alliance or NFA [Mahmoud JIBRIL, founder] (includes many political organizations, NGOs, and independents)
Union for the Homeland [Abd al-Rahman al-SUWAYHILI]
note: list includes some of the larger political parties and leaders

Political pressure groups and leaders:

NA

International organization participation:

ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Suleiman ABULHI
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah K. JONES (since 11 June 2013)
note: on 11 September 2012, US Ambassador Christopher STEVENS and three other American diplomats were killed in an attack by heavily armed militants on a US diplomatic post in the eastern city of Benghazi
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239

Flag description:

three horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country

National symbol(s):

star and crescent; hawk
National anthem:

name: 'Allahu Akbar' (God Is Greatest)
lyrics/music: Mahmoud el-SHERIF/Abdalla Shams el-DIN
note: adopted 1969; the anthem was originally a battle song for the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War

Geography

Location:
 
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Geographic coordinates:

25 00 N, 17 00 E
Map references:

Africa
Area:

total: 1,759,540 sq km
country comparison to the world: 17
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:

Area comparison map:  
Land boundaries:

total: 4,348 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline:

1,770 km
Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Climate:

Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain:

mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:

arable land: 0.99%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 98.82% (2011)
Irrigated land:

4,700 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:

0.7 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 4.33 cu km/yr (14%/3%/83%)
per capita: 796.1 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:

hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:

desertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:

more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
 

Ethnic groups:

Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
 

Languages:

Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
 

Religions:

Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <.1, Jewish <.1, folk religion <.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
 

Population:

6,244,174
country comparison to the world: 108
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2013) (July 2014 est.)
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 26.9% (male 859,016/female 820,643)
15-24 years: 18.2% (male 586,749/female 546,602)
25-54 years: 46.1% (male 1,509,108/female 1,370,709)
55-64 years: 4.8% (male 154,847/female 145,330)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 126,691/female 124,479) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 52.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 44.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 %
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 27.5 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 27.4 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

3.08% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 

Birth rate:

18.4 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 

Death rate:

3.57 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
 

Net migration rate:

16.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 77.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

TRIPOLI (capital) 1.127 million (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

58 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 102
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 11.87 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 126
male: 12.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 76.04 years
country comparison to the world: 86
male: 74.36 years
female: 77.82 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

2.07 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
 

Health expenditures:

4.4% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 153
 

Physicians density:

1.9 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
 

Hospital bed density:

3.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.3% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

10,000 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

NA
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

27.8% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 35
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

5.6% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 86
 

Education expenditures:

NA
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.5%
male: 95.8%
female: 83.3% (2011 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2003)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
Libya's economy is structured primarily around the nation's energy sector, which generates about 95% of export earnings, 80% of GDP, and 99% of government income. Substantial revenue from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but Tripoli largely has not used its significant financial resources to develop national infrastructure or the economy, leaving many citizens poor. In the final five years of QADHAFI's rule, Libya made some progress on economic reform as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and after Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. The process of lifting US unilateral sanctions began in the spring of 2004; all sanctions were removed by June 2006, helping Libya attract greater foreign direct investment, especially in the energy and banking sectors. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds drew high international interest, but new rounds are unlikely to be successful until Libya establishes a more permanent government and is able to offer more attractive financial terms on contracts and increase security. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing its primarily socialist economy, but the revolution has unleashed previously restrained entrepreneurial activity and increased the potential for the evolution of a more market-based economy. The service and construction sectors expanded over the past five years and could become a larger share of GDP if Tripoli prioritizes capital spending on development projects once political and security uncertainty subside. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 80% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source is the Great Manmade River Project.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$73.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$77.57 billion (2012 est.)
$37.94 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$70.92 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-5.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
104.5% (2012 est.)
-62.1% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$11,300 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$12,100 (2012 est.)
$6,000 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:

14% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
44.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 20.2%
investment in fixed capital: 8.6%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 54.5%
imports of goods and services: -41.9%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 2%
industry: 58.3%
services: 39.7% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle

Industries:

petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate:

9.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Labor force:

1.644 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:

30% (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182

Population below poverty line:

NA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Budget:

revenues: $41.54 billion
expenditures: $41.87 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

58.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-0.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Public debt:

4.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
4.1% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
6.1% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

9.52% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
3% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

6% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
6% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$47.25 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$45.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:

$51.86 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$49.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$-54.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
$-47.25 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA

Current account balance:

$2.727 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$27.17 billion (2012 est.)

Exports:

$38.45 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$52.02 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:

crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals

Exports - partners:

Italy 23.3%, Germany 12.4%, China 11.2%, France 9.7%, Spain 7.6%, UK 4.7%, US 4.5% (2012)

Imports:

$27.15 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$18.1 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products

Imports - partners:

China 13%, Turkey 11.6%, Italy 8.2%, Egypt 7.7%, Tunisia 6.6%, South Korea 5.8%, Greece 5.4%, Germany 4.6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$120.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
$118.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:

$6.319 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
$5.278 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$17.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$16.84 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$17.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$17.21 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:

Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.277 (2013 est.)
1.2617 (2012 est.)
1.2668 (2010 est.)
1.2535 (2009)
1.2112 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
814,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 85
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

9.59 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 81
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: telecommunications system is state-owned and service is poor, but investment is being made to upgrade; state retains monopoly in fixed-line services; mobile-cellular telephone system became operational in 1996
domestic: multiple providers for a mobile telephone system that is growing rapidly; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has soared
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2010)
 

Broadcast media:

state-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
 

Internet country code:

.ly
 

Internet hosts:

17,926 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 121
 

Internet users:

353,900 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 124

Transportation

Airports:
 
146 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 41
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 
20 (2013)
 

Heliports:

2 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

condensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
 

Roadways:

total: 100,024 km
country comparison to the world: 45
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
 

Merchant marine:

total: 23
country comparison to the world: 91
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Hong Kong 1, Malta 5) (2010)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
oil terminal(s): Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
29.72 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 

Electricity - consumption:

25.24 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 

Electricity - exports:

129 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
 

Electricity - imports:

76 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

6.766 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 

Crude oil - production:

1.483 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Crude oil - exports:

1.378 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

48.01 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

388,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

314,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

119,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

575 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
 

Natural gas - production:

7.855 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
 

Natural gas - consumption:

6.844 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 

Natural gas - exports:

3.666 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

1.547 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

49.67 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Rubber and articles thereof40 R 774,317.00
2Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries33 R 552,199.00
3Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes34 R 423,720.00
4Live animals01 R 201,793.00
5Miscellaneous chemical products38 R 184,085.00
6Articles of iron or steel73 R 85,887.00
7Pharmaceutical products30 R 6,344.00
8Cereal, flour, starch, milk preparations and products19 R 544.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: Yes

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee:  Yes

Visa Issuing Authority: Embassy of Libia 900 Church Street Tel 012-3423902 Fax 012-3423904

Compulsory Vaccination Requirements: 

Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommend Vaccination Requirements: 

Hepatitus A & Tetanus & Meningitis

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