Mexico

$name - General

The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.


Government

Country name:
 

conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico
 

Government type:
 

federal republic
 

Capital:

name: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
note: Mexico has four time zones
 

Administrative divisions:
 

31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas
 

Independence:
 

16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
 

National holiday:
 

Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
 

Constitution:
 

several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2014 (2014)
 

Legal system:
 

civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts
 

International law organization participation:
 

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:
 

18 years of age; universal and compulsory
 

Executive branch:
 

chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.21%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.59%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.41%, other 4.79%
 

Legislative branch:
 

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 June 2015 (next to be held on 1 July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 203, PAN 108, PRD 56, PVEM 47, MORENA 35, MC 26, PNA/PANAL 10, PES 8, PT 6, independent 1
 

Judicial branch:
 

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a single-renewable 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, single-renewable 9-year terms
subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
 

Political parties and leaders:
 

Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Torres]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Marti BATRES]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]
New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]
Social Encounter Party (Partido Encuentro Social) or PES [Hugo Eric FLORES Cervantes]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:
 

Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church
 

International organization participation:
 

APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:
 

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alejandro Ives ESTIVILL (since 1 March 2015)
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:
 

chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE (since 2 August 2011)
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX: [52] (55) 5080-2834
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
 

Flag description:
 

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not display anything in its white band
 

National symbol(s):
 

golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red
 

National anthem:
 

name: 'Himno Nacional Mexicano' (National Anthem of Mexico)
lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as 'Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra' (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed

Geography

Location:
 

North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
 

Geographic coordinates:
 

23 00 N, 102 00 W
 

Map references:
 

North America
 

Area:
 

total: 1,964,375 sq km
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Area - comparative:
 

slightly less than three times the size of Texas
 

Area comparison map: 
 

Land boundaries:
 

total: 4,389 km
border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3,155 km
 

Coastline:
 

9,330 km
 

Maritime claims:
 

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 

Climate:
 

varies from tropical to desert
 

Terrain:
 

high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
 

Elevation extremes:
 

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,675 m
 

Natural resources:
 

petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
 

Land use:
 

agricultural land: 54.9%
arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 41.7%
forest: 33.3%
other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
 

Irrigated land:
 

64,600 sq km (2009)
 

Total renewable water resources:
 

457.2 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 80.4 cu km/yr (14%/9%/77%)
per capita: 700.4 cu m/yr (2009)
 

Natural hazards:
 

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana
 

Environment - current issues:
 

scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
 

Environment - international agreements:
 

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:
 

strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 

noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
 

Ethnic groups:
 

mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European)
note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity (2012 est.)
 

Languages:
 

Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%
note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)
 

Religions:
 

Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)
 

Population:
 

121,736,809 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Age structure:
 

0-14 years: 27.59% (male 17,178,327/female 16,412,337)
15-24 years: 17.9% (male 11,027,564/female 10,759,446)
25-54 years: 40.55% (male 23,785,345/female 25,576,645)
55-64 years: 7.19% (male 4,017,721/female 4,734,391)
65 years and over: 6.77% (male 3,709,873/female 4,535,160) (2015 est.)
 

population pyramid: 
 

Dependency ratios:
 

total dependency ratio: 52.7%
youth dependency ratio: 42.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.1%
potential support ratio: 9.9% (2014 est.)
 

Median age:
 

total: 27.3 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 28.4 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:
 

1.18% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
 

Birth rate:
 

18.78 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
 

Death rate:
 

5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
 

Net migration rate:
 

-1.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 79.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:
 

MEXICO CITY (capital) 20.999 million; Guadalajara 4.843 million; Monterrey 4.513 million; Puebla 2.984 million; Toluca de Lerdo 2.164 million; Tijuana 1.987 million (2015)
 

Sex ratio:
 

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
 

Infant mortality rate:
 

total: 12.23 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
 

Life expectancy at birth:
 

total population: 75.65 years
male: 72.88 years
female: 78.55 years (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 

Total fertility rate:
 

2.27 children born/woman (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
 

72.5% (2009)
 

Health expenditures:
 

6.2% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 108
 

Physicians density:
 

2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
 

Hospital bed density:
 

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
 

Drinking water source:
 

improved:
urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 90.8% of population
total: 94.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 9.2% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 79% of population
total: 85.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 21% of population
total: 14.7% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 

0.23% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 

175,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 

5,600 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
 

Major infectious diseases:
 

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
 

27.6% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 23
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
 

2.8% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 117
 

Education expenditures:
 

5.1% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 72
 

Literacy:
 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.1%
male: 96.2%
female: 94.2% (2012 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2012)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
 

total number: 1,105,617
percentage: 5% (2009 est.)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
 

total: 9.4%
male: 9.1%
female: 9.9% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Economy

Economy - overview:
 

Mexico's $1.3 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing in the 21 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Mexico has become the United States' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2014, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $550 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia and Chile. Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, emphasized economic reforms during its first two years in office, passing and implementing sweeping education, energy, financial, fiscal and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Although the economy is expected to experience stronger growth in 2015 as a result of increased investment and stronger demand for Mexican exports, growth is predicted to remain below potential for reasons of inefficiencies, with a large portion of the economy and workforce in the informal sector, and corruption. Over the medium-term, the economy is vulnerable to global economic pressures, such as lower external demand, rising interest rates, and low oil prices - approximately 30% of government revenue comes from the state-owned oil company, PEMEX. The increasing integration of supply chains, development of the energy sector, and government-to-government focus on trade facilitation will continue to make the North American region increasingly competitive and contribute to Mexican economic development and strength.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):
 

$2.141 trillion (2014 est.)
$2.096 trillion (2013 est.)
$2.067 trillion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 12
 

GDP (official exchange rate):
 

$1.283 trillion (2014 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:
 

2.1% (2014 est.)
1.4% (2013 est.)
4% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):
 

$17,900 (2014 est.)
$17,500 (2013 est.)
$17,300 (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 92
 

Gross national saving:
 

19.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
21.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

GDP - composition, by end use:
 

household consumption: 68.5%
government consumption: 12.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.7%
investment in inventories: -1%
exports of goods and services: 33.2%
imports of goods and services: -33.6%
(2014 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
 

agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 36.4%
services: 60.1% (2014 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:
 

corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
 

Industries:
 

food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
 

Industrial production growth rate:
 

3.8% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
 

Labor force:
 

52.9 million (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 

Labor force - by occupation:
 

agriculture: 13.4%
industry: 24.1%
services: 61.9% (2011)
 

Unemployment rate:
 

4.8% (2014 est.)
4.9% (2013 est.)
note: underemployment may be as high as 25%
country comparison to the world: 45
 

Population below poverty line:
 

52.3%
note: based on food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2012 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
 

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
 

48.3 (2008)
53.1 (1998)
country comparison to the world: 24
 

Budget:
 

revenues: $300.8 billion
expenditures: $348.4 billion (2014 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:
 

23.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
 

-3.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 

Public debt:
 

41% of GDP (2014 est.)
38% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
 

Fiscal year:
 

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 

4% (2014 est.)
3.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
 

Central bank discount rate:
 

4.5% (31 December 2012)
4.5% (31 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
 

4% (31 December 2014 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 

Stock of narrow money:
 

$215.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$192.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Stock of broad money:
 

$826.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$727 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Stock of domestic credit:
 

$502.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$438.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:
 

$525.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$408.7 billion (31 December 2011)
$454.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 

Current account balance:
 

-$26.55 billion (2014 est.)
-$26.28 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 

Exports:
 

$406.4 billion (2014 est.)
$380.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
 

Exports - commodities:
 

manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
 

Exports - partners:
 

US 78.8% (2013)
 

Imports:
 

$407.1 billion (2014 est.)
$381.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Imports - commodities:
 

metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts
 

Imports - partners:
 

US 49.1%, China 16.1%, Japan 4.5% (2013)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
 

$200.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$181 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 

Debt - external:
 

$438.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$394.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
 

$389.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$361.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
 

$170.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$157.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 

Exchange rates:
 

Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
13.14 (2014 est.)
12.772 (2013 est.)
13.17 (2012 est.)
12.423 (2011 est.)
12.636 (2010 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
 

total subscriptions: 21.1 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:
 

total: 102.2 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Telephone system:
 

general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
domestic: despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2011)
 

Broadcast media:
 

many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)
 

Radio broadcast stations:
 

AM 851, FM 726, shortwave 15 (2009)
 

Television broadcast stations:
 

729 (2009)
 

Internet country code:
 

.mx
 

Internet users:
 

total: 49.5 million
percent of population: 41.1% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Transportation

Airports:
 

1,714 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 3
 

Airports - with paved runways:
 

total: 243
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 86
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:
 

total: 1,471
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 281
under 914 m:
1,146 (2013)
 

Heliports:
 

1 (2013)
 

Pipelines:
 

gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)
 

Railways:
 

total: 15,389 km
standard gauge: 15,389 km 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Roadways:
 

total: 377,660 km
paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)
unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 19
 

Waterways:
 

2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 33
 

Merchant marine:
 

total: 52
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 70
 

Ports and terminals:
 

major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz
container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (1,992,176), Lazaro Cardenas (1,242,777) (2012)
oil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada
cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada

Energy

Electricity - production:
 

277.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Electricity - consumption:
 

232.3 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Electricity - exports:
 

1.288 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 

Electricity - imports:
 

607 million kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
 

61.51 million kW (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
 

75.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
 

2.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
 

18.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
 

3.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 

Crude oil - production:
 

2.882 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 

Crude oil - exports:
 

1.333 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Crude oil - imports:
 

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:
 

10.07 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 

Refined petroleum products - production:
 

1.361 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
 

2.044 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:
 

189,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:
 

653,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
 

Natural gas - production:
 

46.43 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Natural gas - consumption:
 

64.58 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Natural gas - exports:
 

32 million cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 

Natural gas - imports:
 

18.53 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:
 

483.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
 

453.8 million Mt (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

General

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