Mozambique

$name - General

Background:
 
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
 

Independence:

25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
 

Constitution:

previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; note - draft amendments planned for parliamentary review in late 2013 (2013)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
 

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Armando Emilio GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA (since 8 October 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%
 

Legislative branch:

unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges)
note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
 

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]
Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Narciso Matos SUMBANA (since 2 November 2009)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas M. GRIFFITHS (since 6 July 2012)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490114
 

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
 

National anthem:

name: 'Patria Amada' (Lovely Fatherland)


lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
note: adopted 2002

Geography

Location:
 
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
 

Geographic coordinates:

18 15 S, 35 00 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 799,380 sq km
country comparison to the world: 35
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of California
 

Land boundaries:

total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
 

Coastline:

2,470 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 

Climate:

tropical to subtropical
 

Terrain:

mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
 

Natural resources:

coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
 

Land use:

arable land: 6.51%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 93.24% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

1,181 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

217.1 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.88 cu km/yr (26%/4%/70%)
per capita: 46.05 cu m/yr (2005)
 

Natural hazards:

severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
 

Environment - current issues:

a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:

the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
 

Ethnic groups:

African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
 

Languages:

Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)
 

Religions:

Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
 

Population:

24,692,144
country comparison to the world: 51
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 45.3% (male 5,627,116/female 5,566,260)
15-24 years: 21.3% (male 2,566,298/female 2,689,695)
25-54 years: 27% (male 3,113,095/female 3,553,266)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 404,988/female 448,814)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 332,013/female 390,599) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 94.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 88.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 16.9 years
male: 16.3 years
female: 17.5 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

2.45% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
 

Birth rate:

38.83 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
 

Death rate:

12.34 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 

Net migration rate:

-2.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 31.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

MAPUTO (capital) 1.15 million; Matola 790,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Mother's mean age at first birth:

18.9
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

490 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 72.42 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 13
male: 74.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 70.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 52.6 years
country comparison to the world: 213
male: 51.85 years
female: 53.37 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

5.27 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

11.6% (2011)
 

Health expenditures:

6.6% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 95
 

Physicians density:

0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
 

Hospital bed density:

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 80.3% of population
rural: 35% of population
total: 49.2% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 19.7% of population
rural: 65% of population
total: 50.8% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 10.7% of population
total: 21% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 89.3% of population
total: 79% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

11.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1,554,700 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

76,800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

4.9% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 158
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

15.6% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 46
 

Education expenditures:

5% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 78
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 56.1%
male: 70.8%
female: 42.8% (2010 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2011)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 1,369,080
percentage: 22 % (2008 est.)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remained dependent upon foreign assistance for 40% of its 2012 annual budget and over half the population remained below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force and smallholder agricultural productivity and productivity growth is weak. A substantial trade imbalance persists although aluminum production from the Mozal smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, The Mozambican government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company (HCB), a signficant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007, the US government's Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a $506.9 million Compact with Mozambique. Compact projects will end in September 2013 and are focusing on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country. Citizens rioted in September 2010, after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on people, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade up to 2013, one of Africa's strongest performances. Mozambique's ability to attract large investment projects in natural resources is expected to fuel continued high growth in coming years. Revenues from these vast resources, including natural gas, coal, titanium and hydroelectric capacity, could overtake donor assistance within five years.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$28.15 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
$26.31 billion (2012 est.)
$24.49 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$14.67 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
7.4% (2012 est.)
7.3% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,200 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
$1,200 (2012 est.)
$1,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

-5.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
-4.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 71.4%
government consumption: 16.9%
investment in fixed capital: 33.8%
investment in inventories: -1.6%
exports of goods and services: 30%
imports of goods and services: -50.5%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 28.7%
industry: 24.9%
services: 46.4% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
 

Industries:

aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
 

Industrial production growth rate:

8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
 

Labor force:

10.55 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
 

Unemployment rate:

17% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
21% (1997 est.)
 

Population below poverty line:

52% (2009 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

45.6 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 37
47.3 (2002)
 

Budget:

revenues: $4.808 billion
expenditures: $6.101 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

32.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-8.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
 

Public debt:

46.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
42.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
2.1% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

9.5% (17 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
3.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.6% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
16.81% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$4.665 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
$4.335 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$6.856 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$6.242 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$4.438 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$3.951 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA
 

Current account balance:

-$5.884 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
-$5.168 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$3.92 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
$3.47 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
 

Exports - partners:

South Africa 31.3%, Belgium 12.8%, China 9%, Italy 7.9%, Spain 6.2%, India 5.8% (2012)
 

Imports:

$7.068 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
$6.168 billion (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
 

Imports - partners:

South Africa 30.5%, China 12.3%, India 11.6%, US 5.1%, Portugal 4.8%, Australia 4.5% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$2.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
$2.77 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$6.276 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
$4.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
30 (2013 est.)
28.383 (2012 est.)
33.96 (2010 est.)
26.28 (2009)
24.125 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
88,100 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 148
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

8.108 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 91
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
domestic: stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 35 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.mz
 

Internet hosts:

89,737 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Internet users:

613,600 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 113

Transportation

Airports:
 
98 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 57
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 
38 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 4,787 km
country comparison to the world: 38
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
 

Roadways:

total: 30,331 km
country comparison to the world: 96
paved: 6,303 km
unpaved: 24,028 km (2009)
 

Waterways:

460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 86
 

Merchant marine:

total: 2
country comparison to the world: 143
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
14.83 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 

Electricity - consumption:

10.19 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 

Electricity - exports:

9.462 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
 

Electricity - imports:

8.537 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

2.428 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
 

Crude oil - production:

20 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
 

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

992 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

19,580 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

953 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

16,140 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 

Natural gas - production:

3.82 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 

Natural gas - consumption:

80 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
 

Natural gas - exports:

3.3 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

3.426 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 527,687,999.00
2Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes28 R 382,895,286.00
3Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 352,787,739.00
4Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 270,825,263.00
5Cereals10 R 204,539,598.00
6Articles of iron or steel73 R 182,936,027.00
7Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes34 R 158,853,683.00
8Iron and steel72 R 150,660,478.00
9Sugars and sugar confectionery17 R 138,997,041.00
10Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board48 R 136,316,856.00
11Plastics and articles thereof39 R 108,442,807.00
12Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus90 R 97,574,674.00
13Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings94 R 74,410,948.00
14Printed books, newspapers, pictures etc49 R 70,799,688.00
15Fertilizers31 R 70,132,890.00
16Rubber and articles thereof40 R 58,191,750.00
17Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc27 R 55,148,069.00
18Animal,vegetable fats and oils, cleavage products, etc15 R 45,318,828.00
19Dairy products, eggs, honey, edible animal product nes04 R 39,031,437.00
20Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 37,871,364.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required:  No

Period/Purpose: Maximum 30 days (Tourism)

Visa Fee: Yes

Visa Issuing Authority: Embassy of Mozambique 75 Hamilton Street Tel 012-4010300 Fax 012-3266388Consulate General (Johannesburg) Tel 011-4846427 Fax 011-4844014 Consulate General (Cape Town) Tel 021-42629444/5 Fax 021-4262946 Consulate General (Durban) Tel 031-3040200 Fax 031-3040744 Consulate General (Nelspruit) 013-7527396 Fax 013-7551207 

Compulsory Vaccination Requirement: Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommended Vaccination Requirement: Hepatitus A, Tetanus, Typhoid & Meningitis

Business Etiquette

Language: Portuguese
Currency: Metical (MZM)
International Dialing Code: +258
Time Difference: +2 hours GMT
Greeting: Hello – ‘Bom dias’ or ‘Bons dias’
Goodbye – ‘Adeus’ (pronounced ‘Ah-dew’) or ‘Tchau’
(pronounced ‘Chow’)

Dealing with a Business Counterpart:
• A handshake, using the right hand, is the most common form of greeting between men. A handshake or nod of acknowledgement is common in terms of being introduced to a woman. In rural areas the nod is more commonly used, while in urban areas the handshake tends to take precedence;
• One should always ensure that one greets the most senior individual(s) first;
• It is important, as a visitor, to be punctual, although business meetings rarely begin on time;
• It should be noted that small-talk will always precede formal business discussions. It is considered appropriate for discussion about one’s health, family and the like, before embarking on business discussions;
• Business discussions should be initiated by the individual who called / arranged the meeting. The meeting will usually be formally closed by the most senior individual present;
• The use of titles and surname of the individuals present is considered important, especially when dealing with members of Government. This formal approach should be maintained, using the prefix title O Senhor (Mr) and A Senhora (Mrs/Ms) until invited to use people’s first names;
• Although there is not set protocol with regard to the presenting and receiving of business cards, it is considered advisable to always present and receive such cards with the right hand.

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Embassies and Diplomats

Read      Download    Embassy Information

Read      Download    Diplomats Information

Trade Agreements

Read African Free Trade Zone Agreement     Download African Free Trade Zone Agreement   African Free Trade Zone Agreement

Read AGOA Trade Agreement     Download AGOA Trade Agreement   AGOA Trade Agreement

Read SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994     Download SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994   SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994

Read South African Trade Agreements     Download South African Trade Agreements   South African Trade Agreements

Export Incentives

Read EMIA Individual Participation     Download EMIA Individual Participation   EMIA Individual Participation

Read SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters     Download SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters   SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters

Read SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme     Download SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme   SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme

Read CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme     Download CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme   CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme

Read Summary of Incentives     Download Summary of Incentives   Summary of Incentives






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