Peru

$name - General


Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president; he has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.


Government

Country name:
 

conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
 

Government type:
 

constitutional republic
 

Capital:
 

name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:
 

25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region
 

Independence:
 

28 July 1821 (from Spain)
 

National holiday:
 

Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
 

Constitution:
 

several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
 

Legal system:
 

civil law system
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:
 

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
 

Executive branch:
 

chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
note: Prime Minister Pedro CATERIANO Bellido (since 2 April 2015) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president; note - Prime Minister Ana JARA was removed from office by Congress in a vote of no confidence on 30 March 2015
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential election last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 48.5%
 

Legislative branch:
 

description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; seats by bloc party as of 10 March 2014 - Gana Peru 43, Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) 36, PP 10, Accion Popular-Frente Amplio 10, National Solidarity 9, Union Regional 8, Partido Popular Cristiano-Alianza Para el Progreso 7, Concertacion Parlamentaria 6, Independent 1; note - defections by members of the National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in the formation of new blocs and frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various blocs
 

Judicial branch:
 

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
 

Political parties and leaders:
 

Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Wide Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:
 

General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
 

International organization participation:
 

APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:
 

chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Miguel CASTILLA Rubio (since 4 February 2015)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:
 

chief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
 

Flag description:
 

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
 

National symbol(s):
 

vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
 

National anthem:
 

name: 'Himno Nacional del Peru' (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest

Geography

Location:
 

Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
 

Geographic coordinates:
 

10 00 S, 76 00 W
 

Map references:
 

South America
 

Area:
 

total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
country comparison to the world: 20
 

Area - comparative:
 

slightly smaller than Alaska
 

Land boundaries:
 

total: 7,062 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km
 

Coastline:
 

2,414 km
 

Maritime claims:
 

territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
 

Climate:
 

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
 

Terrain:
 

western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
 

Elevation extremes:
 

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
 

Natural resources:
 

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
 

Land use:
 

agricultural land: 18.8%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 53%
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
 

Irrigated land:
 

11,960 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
1,913 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 

total: 19.34 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
per capita: 727.6 cu m/yr (2005)
 

Natural hazards:
 

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
 

Environment - current issues:
 

deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
 

Environment - international agreements:
 

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:
 

shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:

noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
 

Ethnic groups:
 

Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
 

Languages:
 

Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
 

Religions:
 

Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
 

Demographic profile:
 

Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
 

Population:
 

30,444,999 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 

Age structure:
 

0-14 years: 26.95% (male 4,174,434/female 4,029,691)
15-24 years: 18.93% (male 2,884,314/female 2,877,403)
25-54 years: 39.65% (male 5,801,997/female 6,268,941)
55-64 years: 7.45% (male 1,103,641/female 1,164,821)
65 years and over: 7.03% (male 1,013,806/female 1,125,951) (2015 est.)
 

population pyramid: 
 

Dependency ratios:
 

total dependency ratio: 53.7%
youth dependency ratio: 43.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 10%
potential support ratio: 10% (2014 est.)
 

Median age:
 

total: 27 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 27.7 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:
 

0.97% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 

Birth rate:
 

18.28 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 

Death rate:
 

6.01 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
 

Net migration rate:
 

-2.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 

Urbanization:
 

urban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:
 

LIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
 

Sex ratio:
 

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
 

Infant mortality rate:
 

total: 19.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
 

Life expectancy at birth:
 

total population: 73.48 years
male: 71.45 years
female: 75.6 years (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 

Total fertility rate:
 

2.18 children born/woman (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
 

75.5% (2012)
 

Health expenditures:
 

5.3% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 140
 

Physicians density:
 

1.13 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
 

Hospital bed density:
 

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
 

Drinking water source:
 

improved:
urban: 91.2% of population
rural: 71.6% of population
total: 86.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.8% of population
rural: 28.4% of population
total: 13.2% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:
 

improved:
urban: 81.2% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 73.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.8% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 26.9% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 

0.35% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 

65,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 

2,800 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 

Major infectious diseases:
 

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever) (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

20.4% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 117
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
 

3.5% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 103
 

Education expenditures:
 

3.3% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 145
 

Literacy:
 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.3%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2010)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34%
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
 

total: 9.5%
male: 9.4%
female: 9.7% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Economy


Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and third largest producer of copper. The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1 to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for almost 60% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped in 2014, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 28 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. Peru's free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, concluded negotiations with Guatemala, and begun trade talks with Honduras, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Turkey and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the United States has doubled.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):
 

$371.3 billion (2014 est.)
$362.8 billion (2013 est.)
$343 billion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 48
 

GDP (official exchange rate):
 

$202.9 billion (2014 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:
 

2.4% (2014 est.)
5.8% (2013 est.)
6% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):
 

$11,800 (2014 est.)
$11,500 (2013 est.)
$10,900 (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 119
 

Gross national saving:
 

22.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
23.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
23.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
 

GDP - composition, by end use:
 

household consumption: 64%
government consumption: 11.2%
investment in fixed capital: 26.2%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 21.8%
imports of goods and services: -23.5%
(2014 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
 

agriculture: 7.1%
industry: 36.7%
services: 56.2% (2014 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:
 

artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
 

Industries:
 

mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
 

Industrial production growth rate:
 

4.2% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 

Labor force:
 

16.55 million
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 

Labor force - by occupation:
 

agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
 

Unemployment rate:
 

6% (2014 est.)
6.5% (2013 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
country comparison to the world: 84
 

Population below poverty line:
 

25.8% (2012 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
 

lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
 

45.3 (2012)
51 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

Budget:
 

revenues: $64.25 billion
expenditures: $64.49 billion (2014 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:
 

30.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
 

-0.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 

Public debt:
 

15.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
16.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
country comparison to the world: 145
 

Fiscal year:
 

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
 

3.2% (2014 est.)
2.8% (2013 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
country comparison to the world: 140
 

Central bank discount rate:
 

5.05% (31 December 2012)
5.05% (31 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 73
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
 

15.7% (31 December 2014 est.)
18.16% (31 December 2013 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
country comparison to the world: 32
 

Stock of narrow money:
 

$33.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$32.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
 

Stock of broad money:
 

$91.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$84.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 

Stock of domestic credit:
 

$47.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$43.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:
 

$153.4 billion (31 December 2012)
$121.6 billion (31 December 2011)
$160.9 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 38
 

Current account balance:
 

-$8.234 billion (2014 est.)
-$9.126 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 

Exports:
 

$36.43 billion (2014 est.)
$42.18 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
 

Exports - commodities:
 

copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
 

Exports - partners:
 

US 18.4%, China 17.8%, Canada 7%, Japan 5.2%, Brazil 4.3%, Switzerland 4.3%, Spain 4.2%, South Korea 4.1%, Chile 4% (2013)
 

Imports:
 

$40.25 billion (2014 est.)
$42.22 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 

Imports - commodities:
 

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
 

Imports - partners:
 

US 24.8%, China 15.3%, Brazil 5.3%, Argentina 4.8%, Chile 4.7%, Ecuador 4.7%, Mexico 4.4% (2013)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$63.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$65.71 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Debt - external:
 

$56.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$55.62 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
 

$81.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$72.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
 

$3.883 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.849 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 

Exchange rates:
 

nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
2.836 (2014 est.)
2.7019 (2013 est.)
2.64 (2012 est.)
2.7541 (2011 est.)
2.8251 (2010 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
 

total subscriptions: 3.03 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:
 

total: 31.7 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 

Telephone system:
 

general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
 

Broadcast media:
 

10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
 

Radio broadcast stations:
 

AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
 

Television broadcast stations:
 

13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
 

Internet country code:
 

.pe
 

Internet users:
 

total: 12.3 million
percent of population: 40.9% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Transportation

Airports:
 

191 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 30
 

Airports - with paved runways:
 

total: 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:
 

total: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
 

under 914 m:
 

82 (2013)
 

Heliports:
 

5 (2013)
 

Pipelines:
 

extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
 

Railways:
 

total: 1,854.4 km
standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 74
 

Roadways:
 

total: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved)
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 35
 

Waterways:
 

8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Merchant marine:
 

total: 22
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 92
 

Ports and terminals:
 

major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)

Energy

Electricity - production:
 

38.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 

Electricity - consumption:
 

35.71 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
 

Electricity - exports:
 

2 million kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 

Electricity - imports:
 

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
 

8.557 million kW (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
 

59.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
 

0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
 

40.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
 

0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
 

Crude oil - production:
 

170,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 

Crude oil - exports:
 

15,610 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
 

Crude oil - imports:
 

99,590 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:
 

632.9 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
 

Refined petroleum products - production:
 

159,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
 

171,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:
 

82,080 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:
 

43,480 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Natural gas - production:
 

32.4 billion cu m (2012)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Natural gas - consumption:
 

11.85 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 

Natural gas - exports:
 

8.73 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 

Natural gas - imports:
 

0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:
 

435.4 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
 

53.58 million Mt (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

General

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