Russia

$name - General

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by former President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. Russian industry is primarily split between globally-competitive commodity producers - in 2009 Russia was the world's largest exporter of natural gas, the second largest exporter of oil, and the third largest exporter of steel and primary aluminum - and other less competitive heavy industries that remain dependent on the Russian domestic market. This reliance on commodity exports makes Russia vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the highly volatile swings in global commodity prices. The government since 2007 has embarked on an ambitious program to reduce this dependency and build up the country's high technology sectors, but with few results so far. The economy had averaged 7% growth since the 1998 Russian financial crisis, resulting in a doubling of real disposable incomes and the emergence of a middle class. The Russian economy, however, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. The Central Bank of Russia spent one-third of its $600 billion international reserves, the world's third largest, in late 2008 to slow the devaluation of the ruble. The government also devoted $200 billion in a rescue plan to increase liquidity in the banking sector and aid Russian firms unable to roll over large foreign debts coming due. The economic decline bottomed out in mid-2009 and the economy began to grow in the first quarter of 2010. However, a severe drought and fires in central Russia reduced agricultural output, prompting a ban on grain exports for part of the year, and slowed growth in other sectors such as manufacturing and retail trade. High oil prices buoyed Russian growth in the first quarter of 2011 and could help Russia reduce the budget deficit inherited from the lean years of 2008-09, but inflation and increased government expenditures may limit the positive impact of these revenues. Russia's long-term challenges include a shrinking workforce, a high level of corruption, difficulty in accessing capital for smaller, non-energy companies, and poor infrastructure in need of large investments.

 


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
 

Government type:

federation
 

Capital:

name: Moscow
geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr; note - Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011
note: Russia has 9 time zones
 

Administrative divisions:

46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')
oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'
republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)
autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)
krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)
federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]
autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
 

Independence:

24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
 

National holiday:

Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
 

Constitution:

several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008 (2013)
 

Legal system:

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
 

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
cabinet: the 'Government' is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - the term length was extended from four to six years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144
 

Legislative branch:

bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; two members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; term lengths are not fixed but instead are determined by the regional bodies represented) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
election results: State Duma - United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.3%; total seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, Just Russia 64, LDPR 56
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 23 members); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); Superior Court of Arbitration (consists of a chairman and 4 deputy chairmen); note - as of January 2014 legislation was pending that would merge the Constitutional Court and Superior Court of Arbitration
judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's three highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all three courts appointed for life
subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions
 

Political parties and leaders:

seventy eight political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of January 2014), but only four parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature:
A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Memorial
Movement Against Illegal Migration
Russkiye
Solidarnost
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
Union of Russian Writers
other - business associations, environmental organizations, religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation), and veterans groups
 

International organization participation:

APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK (since 16 September 2008)
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Chargé d'Affaires Sheila GWALTNEY (since 27 February 2014)
embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
 

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors
 

National symbol(s):

bear; double-headed eagle
 

National anthem:

name: 'Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii' (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)


lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV
note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

Geography

Location:
 
North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
 

Geographic coordinates:

60 00 N, 100 00 E
 

Map references:

Asia
 

Area:

total: 17,098,242 sq km
country comparison to the world: 1
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

Area comparison map:  
 

Land boundaries:

total: 22,407 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 209 km, Ukraine 1,944 km
 

Coastline:

37,653 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 

Climate:

ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
 

Terrain:

broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)
 

Natural resources:

wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
 

Land use:

arable land: 7.11%
permanent crops: 0.1%
other: 92.79% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

43,460 sq km (2008)
 

Total renewable water resources:

4,508 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 66.2 cu km/yr (20%/60%/20%)
per capita: 454.9 cu m/yr (2001)
 

Natural hazards:

permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
 

Environment - current issues:

air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
 

Geography - note:

largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian
 

Ethnic groups:

Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%
note: more than 190 ethnic groups are represents in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)
 

Languages:

Russian (official) 96.3%, Dolgang 5.3%, German 1.5%, Chechen 1%, Tatar 3%, other 10.3%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2010 est.)
 

Religions:

Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
 

Population:

142,470,272 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16.4% (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 7,828,947/female 7,482,143)
25-54 years: 45.8% (male 31,928,886/female 33,319,671)
55-64 years: 13.8% (male 8,408,637/female 11,287,153)
65 years and over: 13.1% (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 41.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 22.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 18.5 %
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 38.9 years
male: 36 years
female: 41.9 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

-0.03% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
 

Birth rate:

11.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
 

Death rate:

13.83 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 

Net migration rate:

1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 73.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

MOSCOW (capital) 11.621 million; Saint Petersburg 4.866 million; Novosibirsk 1.478 million; Yekaterinburg 1.355 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.245 million; Samara 1.166 million (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Mother's mean age at first birth:

24.6 (2009 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

34 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 119
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 7.08 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 160
male: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 70.16 years
country comparison to the world: 151
male: 64.37 years
female: 76.3 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

1.61 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

79.5%
note: percent of women under age 50 (2007)
 

Health expenditures:

6.2% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 103
 

Physicians density:

4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
 

Hospital bed density:

9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 98.7% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 1.3% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 3% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 74.4% of population
rural: 59.3% of population
total: 70.5% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 25.6% of population
rural: 40.7% of population
total: 29.5% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

980,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

NA
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

26.5% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 46
 

Education expenditures:

4.1% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 110
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2010 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2009)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 14.8%
country comparison to the world: 84
male: 14.5%
female: 15.1% (2012)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy towards a more market-based and globally-integrated economy, but stalling as a partially reformed, statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's manufacturing sector is generally uncompetitive on world markets and is geared toward domestic consumption. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during 1998-2008 as oil prices rose rapidly, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. Slowly declining oil prices over the past few years and difficulty attracting foreign direct investment have contributed to a noticeable slowdown in GDP growth rates. In late 2013, the Russian Economic Development Ministry reduced its growth forecast through 2030 to an average of only 2.5% per year, down from its previous forecast of 4.0 to 4.2%. In 2014, following Russia's military intervention in Ukraine, prospects for economic growth declined further, with expections that GDP growth could drop as low as zero.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$2.553 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$2.52 trillion (2012 est.)
$2.437 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$2.113 trillion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

1.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
3.4% (2012 est.)
4.3% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$18,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$17,800 (2012 est.)
$17,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

28.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
29.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
30.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 51.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 29.6%
imports of goods and services: -23%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 37.5%
services: 58.3% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
 

Industries:

complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
 

Industrial production growth rate:

0.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
 

Labor force:

75.29 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 27.8%
services: 62.5% (2012)
 

Unemployment rate:

5.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
5.5% (2012 est.)
 

Population below poverty line:

11% (2013 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 5.7%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2011 est.)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

42 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 50
41.7 (2011)
 

Budget:

revenues: $439 billion
expenditures: $450.3 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

20.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-0.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 

Public debt:

7.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
8% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

6.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
5.1% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

8.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
8% (31 December 2011)
note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

9.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
9.1% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$452.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$399.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$1.061 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$893.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$947 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$922.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$874.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$796.4 billion (31 December 2011)
$1.005 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Current account balance:

$74.8 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$71.43 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$515 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$528 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
 

Exports - partners:

Netherlands 14.6%, China 6.8%, Germany 6.8%, Italy 6.2%, Turkey 5.2%, Ukraine 5.2%, Belarus 4.7% (2012 est.)
 

Imports:

$341 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$335.7 billion (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
 

Imports - partners:

China 16.6%, Germany 12.2%, Ukraine 5.7%, Japan 5%, United States 4.9%, France 4.4%, Italy 4.3% (2012 est.)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$515.6 billion (01 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$537.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$714.2 billion (30 September 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$636.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$552.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$497.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$439.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$387.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
31.82 (2013 est.)
30.84 (2012 est.)
30.368 (2010 est.)
31.74 (2009)
24.853 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
42.9 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 6
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

261.9 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 5
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed line service has improved but a large demand remains
domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density
international: country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
 

Internet hosts:

14.865 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 10
 

Internet users:

40.853 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 10

Transportation

Airports:
 
1,218 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 5
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 594
over 3,047 m: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 197
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 125 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 624
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 81
under 914 m: 
457 (2013)
 

Heliports:

49 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

condensate 122 km; gas 163,872 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,378 km; oil 80,820 km; oil/gas/water 40 km; refined products 13,658 km; water 23 km (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 87,157 km
country comparison to the world: 2
broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)
note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)
 

Roadways:

total: 1,283,387 km
country comparison to the world: 5
paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)
unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)
 

Waterways:

102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 2
 

Merchant marine:

total: 1,143
country comparison to the world: 11
by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3
foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12)
registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy
river port(s): Saint Petersburg (Neva River)
oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (2,365,174)

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
1.057 trillion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 

Electricity - consumption:

1.038 trillion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 

Electricity - exports:

19.14 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
 

Electricity - imports:

2.661 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

223.1 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

67.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

17.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

15.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 

Crude oil - production:

10.44 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 

Crude oil - exports:

4.72 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 

Crude oil - imports:

16,380 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

80 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

4.812 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

3.196 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

2.92 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

24,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
 

Natural gas - production:

669.7 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 

Natural gas - consumption:

457.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 

Natural gas - exports:

196 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 

Natural gas - imports:

32.5 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

1.788 billion Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2013

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 621,411,378.00
2Iron and steel72 R 219,018,877.00
3Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 145,155,249.00
4Aluminium and articles thereof76 R 27,724,392.00
5Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 6,228,438.00
6Rubber and articles thereof40 R 4,694,755.00
7Organic chemicals29 R 2,340,492.00
8Railway, tramway locomotives, rolling stock, equipment86 R 920,568.00
9Tools, implements, cutlery, etc of base metal82 R 907,446.00
10Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc32 R 555,215.00
11Plastics and articles thereof39 R 393,165.00
12Ores, slag and ash26 R 391,570.00
13Ceramic products69 R 356,327.00
14Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof88 R 215,256.00
15Manmade filaments54 R 128,002.00
16Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes28 R 30,903.00
17Carpets and other textile floor coverings57 R 14,035.00
18Articles of iron or steel73 R 8,726.00
19Works of art, collectors pieces and antiques97 R 3,786.00
20Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 1,375.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: Yes

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee: Yes​

Visa Issuing Authority: Embassy of Russia 316 Menlo Park Tel
012-3621337/6872 Fax 012-3627090 Consulate
(Cape Town) Tel 021-4183656 Fax 021-4192651

Compulsory Vaccination Requirement: None

Recommended Vaccination Requirement: None

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