Seychelles

$name - General

Background:
 
A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was re-elected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James Alix MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in May 2011.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles
local long form: Republic of Seychelles
local short form: Seychelles
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: Victoria
geographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

25 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Inner Islands, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamalles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, Takamaka
 

Independence:

29 June 1976 (from the UK)
 

National holiday:

Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993)
 

Constitution:

previous 1970, 1979; latest drafted May 1993, approved by referendum 18 June 1993, effective 23 June 1993; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
 

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 19-21 May 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: President James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 55.5%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 41.4%, Philippe BOULLE 1.7%, Ralph VOLCERE 1.5%; note - this was the second election in which President James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn in as president after former president France Albert RENE stepped down in April 2004
 

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; members to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 29 September - 1 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - the National Assembly was dissolved in July 2011 resulting in early elections
election results: percent of vote by party - PL 88.6%, PDM 10.9%, independents 0.6%; seats by party - PL 31, PDM 1, vacant 2; note - the ruling SPPF changed its name to People's Party (Party Lepep) in June 2009; the SNP and NDP boycotted the 2011 elections
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices; Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 5 pusine judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges)
judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Committee, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges appointed until retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, and child custody and maintenance
 

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Party or DP [Paul CHOW]
People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [James Alix MICHEL]
Popular Democratic Movement or PDM [David PIERRE]
Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO)
Seychelles United Party or SUP [Ralph VOLCERE]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Roman Catholic Church
other: trade unions
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Marie-Louise Cecile POTTER (since 6 September 2012)
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the US Ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles
 

Flag description:

five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side; the oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future; blue represents sky and sea, yellow the sun giving light and life, red the peoples' determination to work for the future in unity and love, white social justice and harmony, green the land and natural environment
 

National anthem:

name: 'Koste Seselwa' (Seychellois Unite)


lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET
note: adopted 1996

Geography

Location:
 

archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
 

Geographic coordinates:

4 35 S, 55 40 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 455 sq km
country comparison to the world: 199
land: 455 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
 

Land boundaries:

0 km
 

Coastline:

491 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 

Climate:

tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
 

Terrain:

Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m
 

Natural resources:

fish, copra, cinnamon trees
 

Land use:

arable land: 2.17%
permanent crops: 4.35%
other: 93.48% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

2.6 sq km (2003)
 

Natural hazards:

lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts
 

Environment - current issues:

water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:

smallest African country; the constitution of the Republic of Seychelles lists 155 islands: 42 granitic and 113 coralline; by far the largest island is Mahe, which is home to about 90% of the population and the site of the capital city of Victoria

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychellois
 

Ethnic groups:

mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
 

Languages:

Seychellois Creole (official) 89.1%, English (official) 5.1%, French (official) 0.7%, other 3.8%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)
 

Religions:

Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 10.6% (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecoastal Assembly 1.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.6), other Christian 2.4%, Hindu 2.4%, Muslim 1.6%, other non-Christian 1.1%, unspecified 4.8%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
 

Population:

91,650 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 20.9% (male 9,808/female 9,320)
15-24 years: 14.2% (male 6,827/female 6,190)
25-54 years: 49.4% (male 23,787/female 21,456)
55-64 years: 8.2% (male 3,915/female 3,632)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,592/female 4,123) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 42.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 31.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 11.1 %
potential support ratio: 9 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 33.9 years
male: 33.4 years
female: 34.5 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

0.87% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 

Birth rate:

14.54 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
 

Death rate:

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 

Net migration rate:

1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 53.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

VICTORIA (capital) 27,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 134
male: 13.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.25 years
country comparison to the world: 113
male: 69.66 years
female: 78.98 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

1.88 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
 

Health expenditures:

3.8% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 170
 

Physicians density:

1.51 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
 

Hospital bed density:

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 96.3% of population
rural: 96.3% of population
total: 96.3% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 3.7% of population
rural: 3.7% of population
total: 3.7% of population (2012 est.)
 

 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 97.1% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 2.9% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

NA
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

NA
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

NA
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

23.9% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 70
 

Education expenditures:

3.6% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 121
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.8%
male: 91.4%
female: 92.3% (2011 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2011)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 20.3% (2002)
country comparison to the world: 58

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the upper-middle-income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. In 2008, having depleted its foreign exchange reserves, Seychelles defaulted on interest payments due on a $230 million Eurobond, requested assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and immediately enacted a number of significant structural reforms, including liberalization of the exchange rate, reform of the public sector to include layoffs, and the selling of some state assets. In December 2013, the IMF declared that Seychelles had successfully transitioned to a market-based economy with full employment and a fiscal surplus.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$2.404 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
$2.326 billion (2012 est.)
$2.261 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.271 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

3.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
2.9% (2012 est.)
5% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$25,900 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$25,300 (2012 est.)
$24,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

18.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
10.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
6.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 92.3%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 28.2%
investment in inventories: 15.2%
exports of goods and services: 35.1%
imports of goods and services: -82.7%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 2%
industry: 18.7%
services: 79.4% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), copra, bananas; poultry; tuna
 

Industries:

fishing, tourism, processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages
 

Industrial production growth rate:

3.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
 

Labor force:

39,560 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 197
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 3%
industry: 23%
services: 74% (2006)
 

Unemployment rate:

2% (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Population below poverty line:

NA%
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 4.7%
highest 10%: 15.4% (2007)
 

Budget:

revenues: $516.7 million
expenditures: $491.7 million (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

40.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
 

Public debt:

51.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
68.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
7.1% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

11.17% (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

12.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
12.19% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$380.7 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
$301.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$584.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
$383.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$617.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
$408.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA
 

Current account balance:

-$140 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
-$208.9 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$516.7 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
$493.3 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

canned tuna, frozen fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)
 

Exports - partners:

France 27.7%, UK 17.6%, Japan 15.2%, Italy 10.6% (2012)
 

Imports:

$846.4 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
$889.6 million (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals, other manufactured goods
 

Imports - partners:

Saudi Arabia 24%, Spain 12.1%, France 5.9% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$362.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
$318.7 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$1.719 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
$1.733 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar -
12 (2013 est.)
13.704 (2012 est.)
12.068 (2010 est.)
13.61 (2009)
8 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
28,900 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 177
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

138,300 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 185
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: effective system
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 170 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago
international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

the government operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available; the government operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio station; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Victoria (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.sc
 

Internet hosts:

247 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 195
 

Internet users:

32,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 180

Transportation

Airports:
 
14 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 150
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 
5 (2013)
 

Heliports:

1 (2013)
 

Roadways:

total: 508 km
country comparison to the world: 194
paved: 490 km
unpaved: 18 km (2010)
 

Merchant marine:

total: 9
country comparison to the world: 118
by type: cargo 1, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 3 (Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 1, South Africa 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Victoria

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
283 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 

Electricity - consumption:

263.2 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
 

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

89,000 kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 

Crude oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
 

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

7,793 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

6,316 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
 

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
 

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

1.088 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal44 R 29,351,416.00
2Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 18,237,168.00
3Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes34 R 12,795,383.00
4Plastics and articles thereof39 R 11,631,588.00
5Miscellaneous edible preparations21 R 9,398,585.00
6Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings94 R 8,989,333.00
7Articles of iron or steel73 R 8,892,943.00
8Meat and edible meat offal02 R 8,687,959.00
9Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 7,641,636.00
10Edible fruit, nuts, peel of citrus fruit, melons08 R 7,638,037.00
11Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc32 R 7,092,389.00
12Sugars and sugar confectionery17 R 7,033,997.00
13Vegetable, fruit, nut, etc food preparations20 R 6,775,212.00
14Cereal, flour, starch, milk preparations and products19 R 6,646,181.00
15Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 6,055,956.00
16Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 5,979,270.00
17Miscellaneous chemical products38 R 5,097,363.00
18Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries33 R 4,253,078.00
19Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers07 R 3,392,535.00
20Pharmaceutical products30 R 2,665,831.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: No

Period/Purpose: A visitor’s permit is issued on arrival for a period of one (1) month (subject to the validity of return/onward ticket).

Visa Fee: The fee for a visitors permit is free of charge for the first three (3) months.

Visa Issuing Authority: Consulate of the Seychelles
Physical address:  81 William Nicol Drive, West End Office Park, Bryanston, Sandton
Postal address:  P O Box 1548, Ferndale, 2160
Tel:  (011) 706-8720
Fax:  (011) 463-8891 

Vaccination Requirement(s): 

Compulsory Vaccination Requirement: Yellow Fever if coming from / stopping over in an endemic area or if been in contact with any East African country and South American countries falling within the yellow fever belt

Recommended Vaccination Requirement: Hepatitis A & Tetanus

Downloads

Embassies and Diplomats

Read      Download    Embassy Information

Read      Download    Diplomats Information

Trade Agreements

Read African Free Trade Zone Agreement     Download African Free Trade Zone Agreement   African Free Trade Zone Agreement

Read AGOA Trade Agreement     Download AGOA Trade Agreement   AGOA Trade Agreement

Read SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994     Download SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994   SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994

Read South African Trade Agreements     Download South African Trade Agreements   South African Trade Agreements

Export Incentives

Read EMIA Individual Participation     Download EMIA Individual Participation   EMIA Individual Participation

Read SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters     Download SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters   SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters

Read SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme     Download SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme   SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme

Read CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme     Download CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme   CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme

Read Summary of Incentives     Download Summary of Incentives   Summary of Incentives






Latest News