Chad

$name - General

Background:
 
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the insurgents. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In January 2014, Chad began a two year rotation on the UN Security Council.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Quest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
 

Independence:

11 August 1960 (from France)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
 

Constitution:

several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2010)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system of civil and customary law
 

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Kalzeube Pahimi DEUBET (since 21 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%
 

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges term NA
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
 

Political parties and leaders:

Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE]
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

rebel groups
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat NASSER (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador James KNIGHT (since 13 March 2013)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
 

Flag description:

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
 

National symbol(s):

goat (north); lion (south)
 

National anthem:

name: 'La Tchadienne' (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960

Geography

Location:
 
Central Africa, south of Libya
 

Geographic coordinates:

15 00 N, 19 00 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 1.284 million sq km
country comparison to the world: 21
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

slightly more than three times the size of California
 

Land boundaries:

total: 6,406 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
 

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)
 

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)
 

Climate:

tropical in south, desert in north
 

Terrain:

broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
 

Natural resources:

petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
 

Land use:

arable land: 3.82%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 96.16% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

302.7 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

43 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.88 cu km/yr (12%/12%/76%)
per capita: 84.81 cu m/yr (2005)
 

Natural hazards:

hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
 

Environment - current issues:

inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
 

Geography - note:

note 1: Chad is largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savanah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), i.e., roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
 

groups:

Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
 

Languages:

French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
 

Religions:

Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
 

Population:

11,412,107 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 44.7% (male 2,588,424/female 2,515,935)
15-24 years: 20.6% (male 1,143,812/female 1,211,136)
25-54 years: 27.8% (male 1,436,018/female 1,737,901)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 193,173/female 247,584)
65 years and over: 3% (male 140,592/female 197,532) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 102.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 97.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 %
potential support ratio: 20.7 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 17.2 years
male: 16.1 years
female: 18.2 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

1.92% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
 

Birth rate:

37.29 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Death rate:

14.56 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 

Net migration rate:

-3.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 21.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.079 million (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Mother's mean age at first birth:

18.2
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2004 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

1,100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 2
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 90.3 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 6
male: 95.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 84.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 49.44 years
country comparison to the world: 223
male: 48.3 years
female: 50.63 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

4.68 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

4.8% (2010)
 

Health expenditures:

4.3% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 158
 

Physicians density:

0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
 

Hospital bed density:

0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.7% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.3% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 11.9% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 88.1% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

2.7% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

213,100 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

14,400 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

2.7% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 177
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

33.9% (2004)
country comparison to the world: 8
 

Education expenditures:

2.3% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 160
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 35.4%
male: 45.6%
female: 25.4% (2011 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 1,475,960
percentage: 48 % (2010 est.)

Economy

 

Economy - overview:
 
Oil and agriculture drive Chad’s economy. At least 80% of Chad's population relies for its livelihood on subsistence farming and livestock raising and oil provides the bulk of export revenues. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. Remittances have also been an important source of income and Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment. Oil production came on stream in late 2003 and Chad began to export oil in 2004. Economic growth has been positive in recent years due to high oil prices and strong local harvests, but Chad’s fiscal situation is repeatedly exposed to declining oil prices and drought . Recently, the economy has been strained by the costs of repatriating Chadians fleeing the violence in South Sudan and the Central African Republic. Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$28 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
$26.94 billion (2012 est.)
$24.74 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$13.59 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

3.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
8.9% (2012 est.)
0.1% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
$2,500 (2012 est.)
$2,400 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

46.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
45.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
45.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 25.9%
government consumption: 12.2%
investment in fixed capital: 53%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 32%
imports of goods and services: -23.4%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 46.3%
industry: 9.9%
services: 43.8% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
 

Industries:

oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
 

Industrial production growth rate:

10% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 

Labor force:

4.293 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 87
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
 

Unemployment rate:

NA%
 

Population below poverty line:

80% (2001 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
 

Budget:

revenues: $2.753 billion
expenditures: $3.557 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

20.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-5.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
 

Public debt:

30.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
31.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
10.2% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

4.25% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 76
4.75% (31 December 2008)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
15.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$1.598 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
$1.442 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$1.804 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$1.559 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$832.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
NA% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA
 

Current account balance:

-$827.1 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
-$378.9 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$3.865 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
$4.126 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
 

Exports - partners:

US 81.9%, China 6.7% (2012)
 

Imports:

$2.701 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
$NA (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
 

Imports - partners:

China 20.2%, Cameroon 18.2%, France 16.1%, Saudi Arabia 5.6%, US 4.2% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$1.304 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
$1.174 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$1.828 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
$1.794 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$NA
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$NA
 

Exchange rates:

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
29,900 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 176
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

4.2 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 119
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.td
 

Internet hosts:

6 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 229
 

Internet users:

168,100 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 145

Transportation

Airports:
 
59 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 
11 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

oil 582 km (2013)
 

Roadways:

total: 40,000 km
country comparison to the world: 87
note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
Waterways:

(Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
98 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
 

Electricity - consumption:

91.14 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
 

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

31,000 kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 

Crude oil - production:

104,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 

Crude oil - exports:

125,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

1,817 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

1,754 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
 

 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

999.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

289,800 Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus90 R 4,241,345.00
2Articles of iron or steel73 R 431,805.00
3Miscellaneous chemical products38 R 349,760.00
4Other made textile articles, sets, worn clothing etc63 R 64,950.00
5Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings94 R 57,514.00
6Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 20,770.00
7Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet61 R 9,750.00
8Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 4,961.00
9Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 1,078.00
10Plastics and articles thereof39 R 774.00
11Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board48 R 44.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: Yes 

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee: Yes  

Visa Issuing Authority: Embassy of Chad (Addis Ababa) Tel +251613819 Fax +251612050

Compulsory Vaccination Requirements: 

Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommend Vaccination Requirements: 

Hepatitus A & Tetanus, Cholera, Polio & Meningitis

 

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