Togo

$name - General

Background:
 
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
 

Government type:

republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
 

Capital:

name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
 

Independence:

27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
 

Constitution:

several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, last in 2005 (2005)
 

Legal system:

customary law system
 

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);
head of government: Prime Minister Kwesi Seleagodji AHOOMEY-ZUNU (since 23 July 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%
 

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (91 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independents 1
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into the Criminal Chamber and the Administrative Chamber, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); appeals courts; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
 

Political parties and leaders:

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA
Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Rainbow Alliance (a colalition including: CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte Adjamagbo JOHNSON]
Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]
Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

NA
 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Limbiye Edawa Kadangha BARIKI (since 14 July 2009)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. WHITEHEAD (since 3 May 2012)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
 

Flag description:

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
 

National anthem:

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)


lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

Geography

Location:
 
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
 

Geographic coordinates:

8 00 N, 1 10 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 56,785 sq km
country comparison to the world: 126
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than West Virginia
 

Land boundaries:

total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
 

Coastline:

56 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 

Climate:

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
 

Terrain:

gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
 

Natural resources:

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
 

Land use:

arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 3.7%
other: 52.1% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

73 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

14.7 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.17 cu km/yr (63%/3%/34%)
per capita: 33.46 cu m/yr (2005)
 

Natural hazards:

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
 

Environment - current issues:

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 

Geography - note:

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

Demographics and Population Development

 

 

Nationality:
 
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
 

Ethnic groups:

African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
 

Languages:

French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
 

Religions:

Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
 

Population:

7,351,374
country comparison to the world: 100
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 40.7% (male 1,499,011/female 1,490,513)
15-24 years: 19.7% (male 723,237/female 726,350)
25-54 years: 32.1% (male 1,173,492/female 1,188,961)
55-64 years: 4.2% (male 145,743/female 163,384)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 104,277/female 136,406) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 80.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 75.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5 %
potential support ratio: 20.2 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 19.6 years
male: 19.3 years
female: 19.8 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

2.71% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 

Birth rate:

34.52 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 

Death rate:

7.43 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 38% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

LOME (capital) 1.524 million (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 40
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 46.73 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 44
male: 53.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 64.06 years
country comparison to the world: 178
male: 61.49 years
female: 66.71 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

4.53 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

15.2% (2010)
 

Health expenditures:

8% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 62
 

Physicians density:

0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
 

Hospital bed density:

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 40.3% of population
total: 60% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 59.7% of population
total: 40% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 25.5% of population
rural: 2.5% of population
total: 11.3% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 74.5% of population
rural: 97.5% of population
total: 88.7% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

2.9% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

128,100 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

7,200 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

4.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 169
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

16.5% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 41
 

Education expenditures:

4.5% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 91
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.4%
male: 74.1%
female: 48% (2011 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years (2011)
 

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 774,801
percentage: 47 % (2010 est.)

Economy

Economy - overview:
 
This small, sub-Saharan economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and Togo seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed over recent years. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a HIPC debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$7.348 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
$6.964 billion (2012 est.)
$6.594 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$4.299 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

5.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
5.6% (2012 est.)
4.8% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
$1,100 (2012 est.)
$1,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

9.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
8.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 87.5%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 36.9%
imports of goods and services: -54%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 27.6%
industry: 33.7%
services: 38.7% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
 

Industries:

phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
 

Industrial production growth rate:

5.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
 

Labor force:

2.595 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 111
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
 

Unemployment rate:

NA%
 

Population below poverty line:

32% (1989 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
 

Budget:

revenues: $825.8 million
expenditures: $983 million (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

19.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-3.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
2.6% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

2.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA%
 

Stock of narrow money:

$1.138 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
$1.057 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$1.971 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
$1.819 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.594 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$1.471 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA
 

Current account balance:

-$355.1 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
-$372.2 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$982.2 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
$960.5 million (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
 

Exports - partners:

India 14.2%, Lebanon 10.6%, Burkina Faso 7.6%, Benin 7.5%, China 6.1%, Niger 5.8%, Netherlands 5.2%, Ghana 4.4% (2012)
 

Imports:

$1.677 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$1.604 billion (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
 

Imports - partners:

China 40.4%, Netherlands 7.9%, France 5.4%, UK 5.3% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$531.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
$441.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$719 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$658.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
225,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 127
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

3.518 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 124
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 50 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2010)
 

Broadcast media:

2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.tg
 

Internet hosts:

1,168 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 170
 

Internet users:

356,300 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 123

Transportation

Airports:
 
8 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 162
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 
2 (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 568 km
country comparison to the world: 110
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
 

Roadways:

total: 11,652 km
country comparison to the world: 129
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)
 

Waterways:

50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 103
 

Merchant marine:

total: 61
country comparison to the world: 66
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
127.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 

Electricity - consumption:

676.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
 

Electricity - imports:

710 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

85,000 kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

21.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

78.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 

Crude oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
 

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

28,670 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

9,773 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
 

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
 

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

1.445 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes12 R 7,961,326.00
2Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board48 R 4,910,408.00
3Milling products, malt, starches, inulin, wheat gluten11 R 4,302,446.00
4Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes28 R 3,874,010.00
5Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 2,919,304.00
6Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc84 R 716,978.00
7Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 588,660.00
8Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 524,577.00
9Articles of iron or steel73 R 426,343.00
10Manmade filaments54 R 315,147.00
11Ships, boats and other floating structures89 R 122,286.00
12Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc27 R 34,957.00
13Commodities not elsewhere specified99 R 19,295.00
14Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet61 R 9,750.00
15Plastics and articles thereof39 R 2,210.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: Yes

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee: Yes  

Visa Issuing Authority: French Consulate General (Johannesburg) Tel 011-7785600  French Consulate General (Cape Town) Tel 021-4231575

Compulsory Vaccination Requirements: 

Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommend Vaccination Requirements: 

Hepatitus A, Tetanus, Typhoid & Meningitis

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Export Incentives

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