Tunisia

$name - General

Background:
 
Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012 and, after several iterations and a months-long political crisis that stalled the transition, ratified the document in January 2014. Presidential and parliamentary elections for a permanent government could be held by the end of 2014.


Government

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Tunisian Republic
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: Tunis
geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions:

24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), L'Ariana (Aryanah), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bouzid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
 

Independence:

20 March 1956 (from France)
 

National holiday:

Independence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)
 

Constitution:

several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014 (2014)
 

Legal system:

mixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
 

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
 

Executive branch:

note: the interim government remains in power pending a general election slated for late 2014
chief of state: President Moncef MARZOUKI (since 12 December 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Mehdi JOMAA (since 29 January 2014)
cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Constituent Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by Constituent Assembly; election last held on 12 December 2011 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President MARZOUKI re-elected president; Constituent Assembly vote - 153 of 156
 

Legislative branch:

unicameral Constituent Assembly (217 seats); note - the legislative role of the Constituent Assembly remains unclear
elections: initial election of 217 Constituent Assembly members held on 23 October 2011 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - al-Nahda 89, CPR 29, Popular Petition 26, FDTL 20, PDP 16, PDM 5, The Initiative 5, Afek Tounes 4, PCOT 3, other minor parties each with fewer than three seats 20
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into civil and criminal chambers and consists of NA judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Magistracy Council (also called the Superior Council of the Judiciary), a 7-member body of judges and prosecutors; judges appointed by presidential decree; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Courts of Appeal; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts
 

Political parties and leaders:

Afek Tounes [Emna MINF]
Alliance for Tunisia (a coalition of Tunisia's Call [Beji Caid ESSEBSI], Republican Party [Maya JRIBI and Najib CHBBI],Democratic Path [Ahmed BRAHIM])
al-Nahda (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]
Congress Party for the Republic or CPR [Moncef MARZOUKI]
Democratic Forum for Labor and Liberties or FDTL (Ettakatol) [Mustapha Ben JAAFAR]
Democratic Modernist Pole or PDM (a coalition)
Democratic Socialist Movement or MDS
Et-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]
Green Party for Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]
Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]
Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]
Popular Petition (Aridha Chaabia) [Hachemi HAMDI]
Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]
Progressive Democratic Party or PDP [Maya JERIBI]
The Initiative [Kamel MORJANE] (formerly the Constitutional Democratic Rally or RCD)
Tunisian Workers' Communist Party or PCOT [Hamma HAMMAMI]
Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

18 October Group [collective leadership]; Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Hassine ABASSI]
 

International organization participation:

ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Mhamed Ezzine CHELAIFA (since 10 March 2014)
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jake WALLES (since 24 July 2012)
embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [216] 71 107-000
FAX: [216] 71 963-263
 

Flag description:

red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
note: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empire
 

National symbol(s):

encircled red star and crescent
 

National anthem:

name: 'Humat Al Hima' (Defenders of the Homeland)


lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates

Geography

Location:
 
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
 

Geographic coordinates:

34 00 N, 9 00 E
 

Map references:

Africa
 

Area:

total: 163,610 sq km
country comparison to the world: 93
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

Area comparison map:  
 

Land boundaries:

total: 1,424 km
border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
 

Coastline:

1,148 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
 

Climate:

temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
 

Terrain:

mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
 

Natural resources:

petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
 

Land use:

arable land: 17.35%
permanent crops: 14.63%
other: 68.02% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

3,970 sq km (2003)
 

Total renewable water resources:

4.6 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 2.85 cu km/yr (14%/4%/82%)
per capita: 295.8 cu m/yr (2001)
 

Natural hazards:

NA
 

Environment - current issues:

toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 

Geography - note:

strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

Demographics and Population Development

Nationality:
 
noun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian
 

Ethnic groups:

Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
 

Languages:

Arabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)
 

Religions:

Muslim (official; Sunni) 99.1%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Shia Muslim, and Baha'i) 1%
 

Population:

10,937,521 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 23% (male 1,298,262/female 1,219,086)
15-24 years: 16% (male 879,755/female 871,954)
25-54 years: 44.6% (male 2,373,765/female 2,509,750)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 468,278/female 454,170)
65 years and over: 7.7% (male 423,350/female 439,151) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 43.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 33.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5 %
potential support ratio: 9.5 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 31.4 years
male: 31 years
female: 31.8 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

0.92% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
 

Birth rate:

16.9 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 

Death rate:

5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 

Net migration rate:

-1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 66.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

TUNIS (capital) 790,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

56 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 104
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 23.19 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 78
male: 26.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.68 years
country comparison to the world: 92
male: 73.6 years
female: 77.9 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

2 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
 

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

63% (2012)
 

Health expenditures:

6.2% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 104
 

Physicians density:

1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
 

Hospital bed density:

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
 

Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 100% of population
rural: 90.5% of population
total: 96.8% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 0% of population
rural: 9.5% of population
total: 3.2% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 76.6% of population
total: 90.4% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 23.4% of population
total: 9.6% of population (2012 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

2,300 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

100 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

22.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 80
 

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

3.3% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 110
 

Education expenditures:

6.2% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 38
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.1%
male: 87.4%
female: 71.1% (2010 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2010)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 42.3% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 10

Economy

Economy - overview:

 
Tunisia's diverse, market-oriented economy has long been cited as a success story in Africa and the Middle East, but it faces an array of challenges during the country's ongoing political transition. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia embarked on a successful strategy focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country's economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia's main economic partner, the European Union. Tunisia's liberal strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improving living standards. Former President (1987-2011) Zine el Abidine BEN ALI continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance and unemployment rose among the country's growing ranks of university graduates. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, sending Tunisia's economy into a tailspin as tourism and investment declined sharply. During 2012 and 2013, the Tunisian Government’s focus on the political transition led to a neglect of the economy that resulted in several downgrades of Tunisia’s credit rating. As the economy recovers, Tunisia's government faces challenges reassuring businesses and investors, bringing budget and current account deficits under control, shoring up the country's financial system, bringing down high unemployment, and reducing economic disparities between the more developed coastal region and the impoverished interior.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$108.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
$105.4 billion (2012 est.)
$101.8 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$48.38 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

2.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
3.6% (2012 est.)
-1.9% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$9,900 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
$9,800 (2012 est.)
$9,500 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

26.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
25.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 66.5%
government consumption: 18.4%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: 3.5%
exports of goods and services: 49.2%
imports of goods and services: -60.1%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 30.4%
services: 61% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
 

Industries:

petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
 

Industrial production growth rate:

3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 

Labor force:

3.974 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 18.3%
industry: 31.9%
services: 49.8% (2009 est.)
 

Unemployment rate:

17.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
17.4% (2012 est.)
 

Population below poverty line:

3.8% (2005 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 31.5% (2000)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

40 (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
41.7 (1995 est.)
 

Budget:

revenues: $12.16 billion
expenditures: $15.8 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

25.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-7.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
 

Public debt:

51.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
46.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

6.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
5.6% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

5.75% (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

7.31% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
6.76% (31 December 2011 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$13.08 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$13.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$29.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$30.72 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$35.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
$36.09 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$8.887 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
$9.662 billion (31 December 2011)
$10.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Current account balance:

-$4.556 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
-$3.773 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$17.46 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$17.07 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
 

Exports - partners:

France 26.2%, Italy 16%, Germany 9.4%, Libya 7.6%, US 4.3% (2012)
 

Imports:

$24.95 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$23.1 billion (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
 

Imports - partners:

France 19.8%, Italy 16.7%, Germany 7.3%, China 6%, Spain 5.3%, Algeria 4.4% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$8.113 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
$8.36 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$26.95 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$24.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$34.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$33.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$295 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
$285 million (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

Tunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar -
1.638 (2013 est.)
1.5619 (2012 est.)
1.4314 (2010 est.)
1.3503 (2009)
1.211 (2008)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
1.105 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 71
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

12.84 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 68
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; a third mobile, fixed, and ISP operator was licensed in 2009 and began offering services in 2010; expansion of mobile-cellular services to include multimedia messaging and e-mail and Internet to mobile phone services also leading to a surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 125 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

broadcast media is mainly government-controlled; the state-run Tunisian Radio and Television Establishment (ERTT) operates 2 national TV networks, several national radio networks, and a number of regional radio stations; 1 TV and 3 radio stations are privately owned and report domestic news stories directly from the official Tunisian news agency; the state retains control of broadcast facilities and transmitters through L'Office National de la Telediffusion; Tunisians also have access to Egyptian, pan-Arab, and European satellite TV channels (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.tn
 

Internet hosts:

576 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 180
 

Internet users:

3.5 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 60

Transportation

Airports:
 
29 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 118
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 15
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 
8 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

condensate 68 km; gas 3,111 km; oil 1,381 km; refined products 453 km (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 2,165 km (1,991 in use)
country comparison to the world: 69
standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2011)
 

Roadways:

total: 19,418 km
country comparison to the world: 112
paved: 14,756 km (includes 357 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,662 km (2010)
 

Merchant marine:

total: 9
country comparison to the world: 116
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira

Energy

Electricity - production:
 
15.14 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
 

Electricity - consumption:

13.29 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
 

Electricity - imports:

19 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

3.652 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

96.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

1.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

1.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 

Crude oil - production:

68,310 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
 

Crude oil - exports:

77,980 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
 

Crude oil - imports:

3,680 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

425 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

11,170 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

88,380 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

3,391 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

80,980 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
 

Natural gas - production:

1.93 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
 

Natural gas - consumption:

3.28 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
 

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
 

Natural gas - imports:

1.78 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

20.52 million Mt (2011 est.)

General

Annual Exports








Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2014

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Vehicles other than railway, tramway87 R 44,707,910.00
2Headgear and parts thereof65 R 16,435,829.00
3Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc32 R 6,404,532.00
4Beverages, spirits and vinegar22 R 2,432,710.00
5Ores, slag and ash26 R 1,425,212.00
6Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal44 R 292,710.00
7Miscellaneous chemical products38 R 236,994.00

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: Yes

Period/Purpose: 

Visa Fee: Yes 

Visa Issuing Authority: Embassy of Tunisia 850 Church Street Tel 012-3426282 Fax 012-3426284

Compulsory Vaccination Requirements: 

Yellow Fever if coming from endemic country or travelled through an endemic country

Recommend Vaccination Requirements: 

Hepatitus A & Tetanus

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Embassies and Diplomats

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Read      Download    Diplomats Information

Trade Agreements

Read African Free Trade Zone Agreement     Download African Free Trade Zone Agreement   African Free Trade Zone Agreement

Read AGOA Trade Agreement     Download AGOA Trade Agreement   AGOA Trade Agreement

Read SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994     Download SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994   SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994

Read South African Trade Agreements     Download South African Trade Agreements   South African Trade Agreements

Export Incentives

Read EMIA Individual Participation     Download EMIA Individual Participation   EMIA Individual Participation

Read SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters     Download SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters   SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters

Read SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme     Download SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme   SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme

Read CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme     Download CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme   CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme

Read Summary of Incentives     Download Summary of Incentives   Summary of Incentives






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